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Medical Glossary


Discussions on "Medical Glossary" in "General Health Problems" forum.


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    Medical Glossary



    Abdomen - Area between the chest and the hips that contains the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen.

    Absorption - The way substances pass into tissue as nutrients from food move from the small intestine into the cells of the body.

    Abutment teeth - The surrounding teeth of each side of the gap where teeth are missing

    Acquired deafness - Loss of hearing that occurs or develops over the course of a lifetime; deafness not present at birth.

    Adenocarcinoma - A cancer that develops in the lining or inner surface of an organ.

    Agonist - A drug capable of combining with receptors to initiate an action that can be known in advance.

    Amenorrhea - Absence or cessation of menstrual periods.

    Anal fistula - Channel that develops between the anus and the skin. Most fistulas are the result of an abscess (infection) that spreads to the skin

    Anesthesia - Loss of feeling or sensation as a result of drugs or gases. General anesthesia causes loss of consciousness; local or regional anesthesia causes loss of feeling only to a specified area.

    Antacids - Medicines that balance acids and gas in the stomach.

    Antibiotic - Chemical substances, produced by living organisms or synthesized (created) in laboratories, for the purpose of killing other organisms that cause disease.

    Antioxidants - Compounds that protect against cell damage inflicted by molecules called oxygen-free radicals, which are a major cause of disease and aging.

    Anus - Opening at the end of the digestive tract where bowel contents leave the body.

    Anemia - A condition in which the number of red blood cells is below normal.

    Aorta - Blood vessel that delivers oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the body; it is the largest blood vessel in the body.

    Artificial ventilation - The process of supporting breathing by manual or mechanical means when normal breathing is inefficient or has stopped

    Axon - The long, hair like extension of a nerve cell that carries a message to a nearby nerve cell.

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    Re: Medical Glossary



    Bladder - A hollow organ that urine drains into from the kidneys.

    Body mass index (BMI) - A number, derived by using height and weight measurements, that gives a general indication of whether or not weight falls within a healthy range.

    Bowel - Another word for the small and large intestines.

    Breast conservation therapy - Surgery to remove a breast cancer and a small amount of benign tissue around the cancer without removing any other part of the breast. This procedure is also called lumpectomy, segmental excision, limited breast surgery.

    Breast implant - A manufactured sac that is filled with silicone gel (a synthetic material) or saline (sterile saltwater); the sac is surgically inserted to increase breast size or restore the contour of a breast after mastectomy.

    Breast reconstruction - Surgery to rebuild a breast mound after mastectomy.

    Baldness - Baldness can be localized to the front and top of the head, such as in male pattern baldness; patchy, such as in alopecia areata; or involve the entire head, such as in alopecia capitis totalis.

    BCG
    - Bacille Calmette-Guerin is an inactivated form of the bacteria that activates the immune system when injected and gives immunity against the tuberculosis disease.

    Bacterial infection - An infection caused by bacteria (micro-organisms which attack the immune system). Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics.


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    Re: Medical Glossary



    CA-125 test - Blood test to detect an elevated level of a protein antigen called CA-125, which may indicate ovarian cancer, among other disorders.

    Calculi - Stones or solid lumps such as gallstones.

    Cancer - Abnormal cells that divide without control, which can invade nearby tissues or spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other parts of the body.

    Cardiac - Pertaining to the heart.

    Circulatory system - Pertaining to the heart and blood vessels, and the circulation of blood

    Colon
    - large intestine

    Colostrum - Thin, white, first milk produced by the breasts during late pregnancy and for a few days after childbirth. It provides a nursing infant with essential nutrients and infection-fighting antibodies.

    Crown
    - A "cap" that covers a cracked or broken tooth, unfixed by a filling, to approximate its normal size and shape.

    Cryptosporidia - Parasite that can cause gastrointestinal infection and diarrhea

    Cancer - A term for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control. Cancer cells can invade nearby tissues and can spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other parts of the body.

    Calculus
    - Accumulation of mineral salts in various parts of the body, such as a kidney stone or on teeth.


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    Re: Medical Glossary



    Deciduous teeth - Also known as "baby" or primary teeth.

    Delusions - A condition in which the patient has lost touch with reality and experiences hallucinations and misperceptions.

    Dendrite - A thread-like extension from a nerve cell that serves as an antenna to receive messages from the axons of other nerve cells.

    Dental implants - Small dental appliances that are inserted into the upper and lower jaws to help restore a mouth that has little or no non-restorable teeth

    Diaphragm - Primary muscle used for respiration, located just below the lung bases.

    Dacarbazine
    - An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents.

    Dactinomycin - An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called antitumor antibiotics

    Danazol - A synthetic hormone that belongs to the family of drugs called androgens and is used to treat endometriosis. It is being evaluated in the treatment of endometrial cancer.

    Daunorubicin
    - An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called antitumor antibiotics.


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    Re: Medical Glossary



    Echocardiography - A procedure that uses ultrasonic waves directed over the chest wall to obtain a graphic record of the heart's position, motion of the walls, or internal parts such as the valves.

    Ectopic pregnancy
    - Pregnancy occurring in an abnormal position outside the uterus

    Eclampsia - Seizures due to high blood pressure during pregnancy.

    Endometrium - Mucous membrane lining of the inner surface of the uterus that grows during each menstrual cycle and is shed in menstrual blood.

    Enteroscopy - Examination of the small intestine with an endoscope

    Extrinsic asthma - Asthma that is triggered by an allergic reaction - usually to something that is inhaled.


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    Re: Medical Glossary



    Fallopian tubes
    - Two thin tubes that extend from each side of the uterus, toward the ovaries, as a passageway for eggs and sperm

    Fibrocystic breasts - Non-cancerous condition in which small lumps and cysts develop in the breasts.

    Food intolerance - An adverse food-induced reaction that does not involve the immune system

    Fetus
    - The name used for the unborn baby from the end of the 8th week after conception

    False labor - Irregular pains and contractions that give a pregnant woman the illusion that labor has begun.

    Far sightedness - This is a refractory error where the eyeball is too short and the light focuses behind the retina of the eye. This leads to difficulty in focusing on objects that are close to the eye. It is also called hyperopia or hypermetropia or colloquially as farcing

    Fatty Acids
    - A major component of fats that are used by the body for energy and tissue development.


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    Re: Medical Glossary



    Galactose - A type of sugar found in milk products and sugar beets, it is also made by the body. It is considered a nutritive sweetener because it has calories.

    Gallbladder - The pear-shaped organ that sits below the liver. Bile is concentrated and stored in the gallbladder.

    Gamma rays - High-energy rays that come from a radioactive source such as cobalt-60

    Gastric - Pertaining to the stomach

    Gastric ulcer - An open sore on the lining of the stomach

    Gastroenterologist - A doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the digestive system.

    Genital herpes
    - A sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus.

    Glycogen - Converted glucose for storage. Glycogen plays a role in controlling blood sugar levels.

    Gray matter - The darker-colored tissues of the central nervous system; in the brain, the gray matter includes the cerebral cortex, the thalamus, the basal ganglia, and the outer layers of the cerebellum.

    Gustation
    - Act or sensation of tasting.


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    Re: Medical Glossary



    Halitosis - An oral health condition characterized by consistently odorous breath.

    Hepatitis E - Virus spread mostly through unclean water.

    Hypothalamus - Small structure at the base of the brain that regulates many body functions, including appetite and body temperature.

    Hysteroscope - Visual examination of the canal of the cervix and the interior of the uterus using a viewing instrument inserted through the vagina.

    Haemoglobinuria - The presence of free hemoglobin in the urine.

    Hay fever - The popular name for runny nose or allergic rhinitis is an allergic reaction of the immune system upon exposure to foreign substances

    Hb - Hemoglobin


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    Re: Medical Glossary



    Immobilization - Preventing movement to allow for natural healing to take place.

    Immune system - Complex network of specialized cells and organs that work together to defend the body against attacks by "foreign" invaders such as bacteria and viruses

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) - Treatment for infertility in which a woman's egg is fertilized, outside her body, with her partner's sperm or sperm from a donor.

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
    - Long-lasting problems that cause irritation and ulcers in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract - the most common disorders are ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

    Isometric - Muscle contraction without movement at the joint.


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    Re: Medical Glossary



    Jaundice - Symptom of liver damage, bile obstruction or excessive red-blood-cell destruction. Jaundice is characterized by yellowing of the whites of the eyes, yellow skin, dark urine and light stool.

    Jordan frame - Specialized stretcher developed for transport of patients with a suspected spinal injury.

    Jumper's knee - Associated with a small area of degeneration of the tendon attachment at the lower pole of the patella (knee-cap), characterized by pain and extreme local tenderness.


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