Sponsored Links
Sponsored Links
Penmai eMagazine November! | All Issues

User Tag List

Like Tree64Likes

Diabetes


Discussions on "Diabetes" in "General Health Problems" forum.


  1. #21
    YOKI's Avatar
    YOKI is offline Minister's of Penmai
    Real Name
    Subha
    Gender
    Female
    Join Date
    Jun 2011
    Location
    Salem
    Posts
    2,805

    re: Diabetes

    Quote Originally Posted by Nishahameetha View Post
    Yoki, good and useful post dear........
    tanku Nish dear..


    Sponsored Links
    Nishahameetha likes this.
    Subha... Believe in all that can be

    A miracle starts whenever you dream

    Believe and sing from your heart
    You'll see Your song will hold the key

    To Sucess...

  2. #22
    YOKI's Avatar
    YOKI is offline Minister's of Penmai
    Real Name
    Subha
    Gender
    Female
    Join Date
    Jun 2011
    Location
    Salem
    Posts
    2,805

    re: Diabetes

    Quote Originally Posted by Penmai View Post
    yoki...very informative post... with full collection of information. keep sharing
    tanku mam..

    Subha... Believe in all that can be

    A miracle starts whenever you dream

    Believe and sing from your heart
    You'll see Your song will hold the key

    To Sucess...

  3. #23
    YOKI's Avatar
    YOKI is offline Minister's of Penmai
    Real Name
    Subha
    Gender
    Female
    Join Date
    Jun 2011
    Location
    Salem
    Posts
    2,805

    re: Diabetes

    புதிய இன்சுலின் பம்ப் :
    இன்சுலின் பம்ப்பை இயந்திரக் கணையம் என்று சொல்லலாம் இதை இடுப்பில் பொருத்திக்கொண்டால் இரத்தத்தில் சர்க்கரை அதிகமாகும்போதெல்லாம் அதற்குத் தேவையான இன்சுலினை உடலுக்குள் செலுத்திக் கொண்டே இருக்கும். அடிக்கடி சர்க்கரை ஏறி இறங்கும் நிலையில் உள்ள முதல் வகை சர்க்கரை உள்ளவர்களுக்கு இது ஒரு நல்ல தீர்வு.
    இதைப் பொருத்திக் கொள்பவர்கள் ஒரு நாளைக்கு 23 முறை ரத்தப் பரிசோதனை செய்து சர்க்கரையைக் கண்காணித்துக் கொள்ள வேண்டும். இப்போது புதிதாக வந்துள்ள இன்சுலின் பம்பில் ரத்தப் பரிசோதனைக் கருவியும் இணைக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது. இது 24 மணி நேரமும் சர்க்கரையின் அளவைக் காட்டும் திறன் வாய்ந்தது. தனியாக இரத்தப் பரிசோதனை செய்ய வேண்டியதில்லை.

    Diabetes-infuser.jpg

    Diabetes-infusion-p.jpg

    Nishahameetha and senvi like this.
    Subha... Believe in all that can be

    A miracle starts whenever you dream

    Believe and sing from your heart
    You'll see Your song will hold the key

    To Sucess...

  4. #24
    YOKI's Avatar
    YOKI is offline Minister's of Penmai
    Real Name
    Subha
    Gender
    Female
    Join Date
    Jun 2011
    Location
    Salem
    Posts
    2,805

    re: Diabetes

    குழந்தைகளுக்கு சர்க்கரை நோய்
    இந்நோயால் பாதிக்கப்பட்ட குழந்தை திடீரென அடிக்கடி அதிகமாக சிறுநீர் கழிக்கும். அதிக தண்ணீர் குடிக்கும். தாகம் அதிகமிருக்கும் பசி அதிகம் இருக்கும். உடல் எடை வேகமாக குறையும். இவற்றை அலட்சியப்படுத்தினால் 48 மணி நேரத்திற்குள் குழந்தை நினைவிழந்த நிலைக்குச் சென்றுவிடும்.
    நினைவிழந்த நிலையில் உள்ள குழந்தை களுக்கு சிகிச்சை அளிக்கும்போது குறைந்தது ஒரு முறையாவது சர்க்கரையின் அளவை இரத்தத்திலும், சிறுநீரிலும் பரிசோதனை செய்து பார்க்க வேண்டும். இரத்தத்தில் சர்க்கரையின் அளவு அதிகம் இருந்தால் இன்சுலின் ஊசியைப் போட்டு கட்டுப்பாட்டிற்குக் கொண்டு வந்து நினைவிழந்த நிலையில் உள்ள குழந்தையை உடனடியாக குணமாக்க முடியும். தக்க சமயத்தில் மருத்துவம் செய்தால் இது சாத்தியமாகும். அதன் பின் பெற்றோர்கள் மிகக் கவனமாக செயல்பட வேண்டும். மீண்டும் குழந்தையை நினைவிழந்த நிலைக்கு விட்டு விடக்கூடாது.
    மருத்துவர் பரிந்துரை செய்யும் இன்சுலின் ஊசியை தொடர்ந்து போட்டுவர வேண்டும். பெரிய குழந்தையாக இருந்தால் அவர்களே ஊசி போட பழகிக் கொள்வது நல்லது. சிறு குழந்தைகளுக்கு பெற்றோர்கள் ஊசி போட கற்றுக் கொள்வது நல்லது. சிறுவர்களுக்கு இன்சுலின் சுரக்கும் பீட்டாசெல்கள் முற்றிலும் அல்லது பெருமளவு செயலிழந்துவிடுகின்றன. ஆகவே உடலில் இவர்களுக்கு இன்சுலின் உற்பத்தியே இருக்காது. அல்லது போதுமானதாக இருக்காது. எனவே இவர்கள் இன்சுலின் ஊசியைத் தொடர்ந்து மருத்துவர் அறிவுரைப்படி போட்டு வந்தால் மற்ற குழந்தைகளைப் போலவே இவர்களும் இயல்பாக வாழலாம்.

    Nishahameetha and senvi like this.
    Subha... Believe in all that can be

    A miracle starts whenever you dream

    Believe and sing from your heart
    You'll see Your song will hold the key

    To Sucess...

  5. #25
    YOKI's Avatar
    YOKI is offline Minister's of Penmai
    Real Name
    Subha
    Gender
    Female
    Join Date
    Jun 2011
    Location
    Salem
    Posts
    2,805

    re: Diabetes

    GLUCOSE TEST

    A glucose test is one of many tests performed in a clinical laboratory, but also diabetic patients have to perform such a test at home. For people living with diabetes regular monitoring of their blood glucose level is essential to maintaining a healthy and high-quality life. Current blood glucose tests require finger sticks with lancets to draw blood for analysis. These tests are painful (physical and psychological) and inconvenient. Therefore much research is done to develop glucose tests that are painless, fast and convenient.

    Applications in research phase

    Measurement from blood

    Needle-type probe

    The principle of an in vivo sensor that is capable of monitoring glucose and insulin simultaneously holds great promise. Wang et. al. 14 developed a dualsensor system for glucose measurement in blood. It contains two sensors an amperometric glucose biosensor and an electrocatalytic insulin microsensor, which are both integrated in a stainless steel needle. See figure 4-1. The insulin sensor is an insulin-sensitive RuOx-modified carbon-paste microelectrode and the glucose sensor is a carbon amperometric glucose biosensor 14.
    Figure 4-1 Micro needle with integrated sensors 14.

    The response of the glucose sensor is highly linear: to at least 1000 nM insulin and 14 mM glucose. Both microsensors responded rapidly to injections of the corresponding target analytes, with a nearly instantaneous rise in the current, a slower decay, and peak widths of approximately 90 seconds. There is no apparent cross reactivity. The glucose sensor is not affected by injections of insulin samples while the insulin sensor is not responding to a large excess of glucose.



    Micro biosensor for the measurement of glucose concentration in whole blood

    This is a new micro biosensor for blood analysis (glucose among others), which monolithically integrates enzymatic metal microelectrode array in a micro machined chamber with a microsyringe (see figure 4-2). The time for inlet syringe to the reaction chamber with ink: less than 15 seconds.
    Figure 4-2 Micro biosensor 15.
    L x w: 6 mm x 2,5 mm
    Length of syringe: 4 mm
    W and h syringe: 40 mm
    Thickness walls: 20 mm


    The sensor is composed of metallic microstructures and electrochemical sensors. The metallic microstructures can draw blood from the body through the microsyringe, this is done by capillary force, and the blood is then transferred to the reaction chamber where enzyme electrodes are located. In the reaction chamber, the glucose concentration in blood is electrochemically measured by the enzyme electrodes 15. The range of glucose: 0mM to 50 mM.

    senvi likes this.
    Subha... Believe in all that can be

    A miracle starts whenever you dream

    Believe and sing from your heart
    You'll see Your song will hold the key

    To Sucess...

  6. #26
    YOKI's Avatar
    YOKI is offline Minister's of Penmai
    Real Name
    Subha
    Gender
    Female
    Join Date
    Jun 2011
    Location
    Salem
    Posts
    2,805

    re: Diabetes

    Measurement through skin

    SpectRx, Inc.

    SpectRx, Inc. has a system in development that measures glucose from interstitial fluid (ISF). It turns out that ISF is a reliable surrogate for blood and hopefully this method can replace the conventional way of blood glucose testing. The system using ISF have some great advantages 6, 7:

    • No implanted components are involved in this system. A low power, hand held laser is used for accessing the ISF.
    • The laser creates tiny pores that are capable of yielding enough ISF for measurement of glucose.
    • The glucose in ISF can be measured with a disposable biosensor.

    The system consists of three mayor components: the laser porator, the ISF harvesting patch which houses the glucose assay, and the compact ISF/meter vacuum pump unit. The laser and the ISF harvesting are shown in figure 4-4 and 4-5.
    Figure 4-4 SpectRX laser porator
    Figure 4-5 SpectRX harvesting patch
    The steps in the process are as follows:

    • The stratum corneum or the upper nonviable layer of the skin has to be porated by the laser.
    • A skin alignment ring is placed on the desired site and the distal end of the laser porator is positioned inside the ring to assure proper registration placement of the ISF harvesting head after poration.
    • A precisely controlled ablation of the stratum corneum is performed by coupling pulsed laser energy with an energy absorbing dye film in direct contact with the skin.
    • The created micropores in the stratum corneum act as a channel for the ISF to be drawn to the harvesting patch.

    The poration of the stratum corneum as a duration of less than one second, the porated micropores have a diameter of less than 100 microns. The time delay between blood glucose concentrations and the output of the ISF measurement device must be minimal for a useful ISF based continuous monitoring system. The system was designed with an average of 15 minutes and several studies showed an average time delay of 11.5 minutes, which is within the 15 minutes. For determination of the overall duration of ISF flow (for wearing continuously for several days) subjects had to wear the system two days and one night. Day one and day two were compared with each other and it turned out that there were no significant differences between the two days. The device is still in the investigational stage but it holds great promises which several studies have shown. For example, the continuous flow of ISF is similar for age, sex and ethnicity and the duration of the ISF flow is consistently over 48 hours.

    senvi likes this.
    Subha... Believe in all that can be

    A miracle starts whenever you dream

    Believe and sing from your heart
    You'll see Your song will hold the key

    To Sucess...

  7. #27
    YOKI's Avatar
    YOKI is offline Minister's of Penmai
    Real Name
    Subha
    Gender
    Female
    Join Date
    Jun 2011
    Location
    Salem
    Posts
    2,805

    re: Diabetes

    Measurement ex vivo

    Biosensor for glucose, lactate, glutamate and glutamine Moser et. al. have developed a biosensor for continuous monitoring of glutamine, lactate, and glucose concentrations in mammalian cell cultivation. The device can also be used for ex vivo measurement in human metabolic monitoring a microsystem with the desired minimal sample consumption 13. The Biosensor array consists of 4 sensors (see also figure 4-6):
    glucose sensor
    Figure 4-6 four sensors on the biosensor micro array 13.

    The microsystem consists of a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) part and a thin film part. The biosensors and the reference electrode are located on a glass chip. The inlet wholes and the counter electrode are on the PCB part. See figure 4-7.
    Because of its low costs it is possible to produce it for a low price. It was shown that measurement of more than one analyte on a microchip is possible, so assays of other analytes then mentioned can become possible in the future.
    Figure 4-7 The whole microsystem with sensors and PCB 13. Dimension: 5 x 1 x 0.3 mm, internal volume: 2 mL.

    lactate sensor
    glutamine sensor
    glutamate sensor

    senvi likes this.
    Subha... Believe in all that can be

    A miracle starts whenever you dream

    Believe and sing from your heart
    You'll see Your song will hold the key

    To Sucess...

  8. #28
    senvi's Avatar
    senvi is offline Friends's of Penmai
    Real Name
    senthil kumar
    Gender
    Male
    Join Date
    Feb 2012
    Location
    srivilliputtur
    Posts
    287

    re: Diabetes

    Crystal Clear informations about Diabetes from basics to recent advanced techniques.Thanks for sharing this.....

    YOKI likes this.

  9. #29
    YOKI's Avatar
    YOKI is offline Minister's of Penmai
    Real Name
    Subha
    Gender
    Female
    Join Date
    Jun 2011
    Location
    Salem
    Posts
    2,805

    re: Diabetes

    Quote Originally Posted by senvi View Post
    Crystal Clear informations about Diabetes from basics to recent advanced techniques.Thanks for sharing this.....
    Thanku Senthil sir...

    Subha... Believe in all that can be

    A miracle starts whenever you dream

    Believe and sing from your heart
    You'll see Your song will hold the key

    To Sucess...

  10. #30
    YOKI's Avatar
    YOKI is offline Minister's of Penmai
    Real Name
    Subha
    Gender
    Female
    Join Date
    Jun 2011
    Location
    Salem
    Posts
    2,805

    re: Diabetes

    Commercial applications

    Measurement from blood

    - In Charge ™ System

    This device features two tests: a glucoprotein test, this test indicates the average of the continuous blood glucose changes. The other test is a rapid blood glucose test. The main advantage of this device is that it can perform two tests that are performed rather fast. In this way the diabetic patients can achieve and maintain a better control of their disease. It is a complementation of an existing laboratory test 4. The measurement of the glucose is done within 5 seconds. It has a capacity of storing the most recent 200 glucose tests along with dates and times, and 50 glucoprotein results also with date and time.
    - TaiDoc5

    TaiDoc has 3 blood glucose measurement devices, the TD-4101, TD-4102 and TD-4103. All three devices are discussed below and shown in figure 4-8.
    Some of the main features of the three devices are:

    • It needs a small sample of blood
    • Include arterial, venous and capillary blood
    • No cleaning of the device is required
    • Automatic calibration
    • Large LCD display for the TD-4102 and TD-4103.

    The performances of these three devices are almost the same: the blood sample that is required is 1-3 mL. The test time is about 5-40 seconds. For the TD-4102 the test results are obtained within 10 seconds.
    TD-4101
    TD-4102

    Accutrend

    Boehringer Mannheim has a hand held application, that is meant for diabetics. The technique that is used is unknown. The device can measure multiple analytes, such as: Blood sugar, insulin, carbohydrates. This application collects, stores and analyses the data. The display reports in a chart, graph form without the need of a computer 6. Figure 4-9 Accutrend meter

    - MediSense®

    Medisense® has developed the Precision GTM point-of-care Glucometer, see figure 4-10. In the glucometer the amperometric measurement technique is used. It can provide glucose results for 20 to 600 mg/dL across a 20 to 70% hematocrit range. Another glucose monitor system from MediSense® is shown in figure 4-11. This application is for home-use and is less painful than other applications. - Precision G™

    This meter 8, 9requires just 3.5 microliter of whole blood to provide accurate results within 20 seconds. In a study this meter is compared with conventional equipment. In that study each glucose test is paralleled by laboratory measurement using the GOD/PAP method. The mean accuracy error in the glucose concentration range of 1.1-33.3 mmol/l calculated for the glucometer vs. the laboratory method amounted to only 0.2%. The errors found are of a minor clinical significance and the results are in accordance with recent studies which showed that 5% of glucose measurements were outside the clinical tolerance limits. It is developed for use in laboratory for near patient glucose testing and there has been paid special attention to the user-interface. It contains: laser barcode scanning for data entry and it is possible to communicate with a PC.
    Figure 4-10 Precision G ™ point-of-care Glucometer.



    anitha.sankar likes this.
    Subha... Believe in all that can be

    A miracle starts whenever you dream

    Believe and sing from your heart
    You'll see Your song will hold the key

    To Sucess...

loading...

Bookmarks

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •  
Like It?
Share It!







Follow Penmai on Twitter