A heart attack (myocardial infarction) occurs when blood flow to the heart muscle is blocked. Blockage can occur from blood clots in the arteries, arterial spasm, or a severe disturbance to the heart rhythm. This blockage can produce injury or death of heart muscle tissue. Men are affected more than women, and it occurs more often after 40 years of age. An individual's risk of heart attack increases with smoking, high blood pressure, lack of exercise, diabetes, obesity, stress, a family history of coronary artery disease, high LDL (bad cholesterol) or low HDL (good cholesterol). If you have symptoms of a heart attack, CALL 1061 or seek emergency medical treatment! Delaying or avoiding treatment increases your risk of dying!.

Symptoms may include:

Chest pain or pressure, especially a squeezing or crushing sensation
Radiation of pain to arms, neck, jaw, upper back, or stomach area
A feeling of anxiousness or doom
Difficulty breathing
Nausea and/or vomiting
Sweating (often cold)


Hospitalize you immediately
Order medicine to dissolve clot. This may be very effective, but only if used in the first few hours after a heart attack occurs
Order other medication (for controlling pain and heart rhythm), oxygen, electrical heart pacing, and resuscitation measures if necessary
Refer you for surgical procedures (angioplasty, pacemaker insertion, or bypass) if required.


During recovery and to help prevent another heart attack:
Discuss resuming normal activities with your doctor.
Stop smoking and exercise as directed.
Work with your doctor and health care team to identify and change other harmful behaviors that could contribute to another heart attack, such as poor nutrition or poor control over blood pressure or diabetes.


Recovering after a heart attack depends on several factors, but generally takes 4-8 weeks.
Your doctor will probably recommend some form of cardiac rehabilitation.

Contact your doctor during recovery if:

You have chest pain that your medication does not relieve.
You have difficulty breathing even without much exertion.
You experience lightheadedness or fainting.
You have heart palpitations or an irregular heart beat.
CALL 1061 OR SEEK IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ASSISTANCE If you have symptoms of a heart attack or if you see a possible heart attack victim! For a possible victim, begin CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) if you know how. Prompt treatment can be lifesaving.

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