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Common Blood values .....


Discussions on "Common Blood values ....." in "General Health Problems" forum.


  1. #1
    PriyagauthamH's Avatar
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    Common Blood values .....

    Hi all , In this thread I am going to post the normal range of values for blood sugar , diabetes and anemia ......

    I am not gonna cover any harmones as it is very vast and complex too .... Plus it will have to be taken into account based on symptoms etc.........


    Blood sugar ........
    Regarding blood sugar the common terms heard are fasting /postprandial /GTT and HbA1c ...... Lets cover one by one ........

    Blood sugar can be checked randomly at any time or a person can have a fasting glucose and post prandial ( after a meal)glucose test done .......

    If fasting blood glucose is done a person has to fast for a minimum of 8 hours .... Only water is allowed ......
    .

    The fasting test should be conducted on two separate occasions to ensure consistent results and in order to avoid a false diagnosis.

    Fasting test results

    The results of a fasting test with respect to glucose levels in the body are as follows:

    • Normal: 3.9 to 5.5 mmols/l (70 to 100 mg/dl)
    • PreDiabetes or Impaired Glucose Tolerance: 5.6 to 7.0 mmol/l (101 to 126 mg/dl)
    • Diagnosis of diabetes: more than 7.0 mmol/l (126 mg/dl)

    Recommended target blood glucose level ranges


    Target Levels
    by Type
    Before meals
    (pre prandial)
    2 hours after meals
    (post prandial)
    Non-diabetic 4.0 to 5.9 mmol/L under 7.8 mmol/L
    Type 2 diabetes 4 to 7 mmol/L under 8.5 mmol/L
    Type 1 diabetes 4 to 7 mmol/L under 9 mmol/L
    Children w/ type 1 diabetes 4 to 8 mmol/L under 10 mmol/L


    NB: There are differening opinions about the ideal blood glucose level range.
    You should discuss your own individual needs with your healthcare team.



    Normal and diabetic blood sugar ranges

    For the majority of healthy individuals, normal blood sugar levels are as follows:

    • Normal blood glucose level in humans is about 4 mM (4 mmol/L or 72 mg/dL)
    • When operating normally the body restores blood sugar levels to a range of 4.4 to 6.1 mmol/L (82 to 110 mg/dL)
    • Shortly after a meal the blood glucose level may rise temporarily up to 7.8 mmol/L (140 mg/dL)

    For people with diabetes, blood sugar level targets are as follows:

    • Before meals: 4 to 7 mmol/L for people with type 1 or type 2
    • After meals: under 9 mmol/L for people with type 1 and 8.5mmol/L for people with type 2


    GTT - Glucose tolerance test

    A GTT checks how well your body processes glucose. It involves comparing the levels of glucose in your blood before and after drinking a sugary drink.
    In healthy people, glucose levels in the blood always rise after a meal but they soon return to normal as the glucose is used up or stored. A GTT helps to distinguish between this normal pattern and the patterns seen in diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance.
    You are asked not to eat for a certain length of time before a GTT. Your fasting blood glucose level is checked by a blood test just before the test. Then you drink a sugary drink and another blood test is taken two hours after the drink to measure your blood glucose levels again. Normally, your body should quickly move glucose from your blood into your body's cells. If there is a problem moving glucose into the cells, glucose remains in the bloodstream. This shows as a higher level of glucose in the second blood sample.
    When the results of the blood samples come back, doctors compare the level of glucose found in your blood sample taken after the test with specific values. These values can determine if you have diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance.

    GTT interpretation:


    After GTT the doctor can conclude that either your are normal / have impaired glucose tolerance / impaired fasting glycaemia


    The World Health Organization (WHO) has said that someone has impaired glucose tolerance if they have:

    • a fasting blood glucose of less than 7 mmol/L, AND
    • a blood glucose of 7.8 mmol/L or more but less than 11.1mmol/L after a two-hour oral GTT (see below).

    The WHO also recommended an HbA1c of 42−47 mmol/mol (6.0-6.5%) indicates a high risk of diabetes.
    What is impaired fasting glycaemia?

    The WHO has also said that someone has impaired fasting glycaemia if they have:

    • a fasting blood glucose between 6.1 to 6.9 mmol/L, AND
    • a blood glucose of less than 7.8 mmol/L after a two-hour oral GTT (see below).

    If you have impaired fasting glycaemia, you are also thought to have an increased risk of developing diabetes, although this is a little lower than those with impaired glucose tolerance. Also, even though still increased, your risk of developing cardiovascular disease seems to be lower than if you have impaired glucose tolerance.




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    Last edited by PriyagauthamH; 3rd Dec 2013 at 11:05 PM.
    Priya


  2. #2
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    Re: Common Blood values .....

    Continued


    HbA1c
    Guide to HbA1c

    HbA1c is a term commonly used in relation to diabetes. This guide explains what HbA1c is, how it differs from blood glucose levels and how it's used for diagnosing diabetes.

    What is HbA1c?

    The term HbA1c refers to glycated haemoglobin. It develops when haemoglobin, a protein within red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout your body, joins with glucose in the blood, becoming 'glycated'.
    By measuring glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), clinicians are able to get an overall picture of what our average blood sugar levels have been over a period of weeks/months.
    For people with diabetes this is important as the higher the HbA1c, the greater the risk of developing diabetes-related complications.
    HbA1c is also referred to as haemoglobin A1c or simply A1c.
    Definition of HbA1c

    HbA1c refers to glycated haemoglobin (A1c), which identifies average plasma glucose concentration .

    How does HBA1c return an accurate average measurement of average blood glucose?

    When the body processes sugar, glucose in the bloodstream naturally attaches to haemoglobin.
    The amount of glucose that combines with this protein is directly proportional to the total amount of sugar that is in your system at that time.



    Because red blood cells in the human body survive for 8-12 weeks before renewal, measuring glycated haemoglobin (or HbA1c) can be used to reflect average blood glucose levels over that duration, providing a useful longer-term gauge of blood glucose control.
    If your blood sugar levels have been high in recent weeks, your HbA1c will also be greater.
    HbA1c targets

    Targets for HbA1c are as follows:

    • For people without diabetes, the range is 20-41 mmol/mol
      (4-5.9%)
    • For people with diabetes, an HbA1c level of 48 mmol/mol
      (6.5%)
      is considered good control, although some people may prefer their numbers to be closer to that of non-diabetics
    • For people at greater risk of hypoglycemia (lower than normal blood sugar), a target HbA1c of 59 mmol/mol (7.5%) to reduce the risk of hypos

    HbA1c targets mmol/mol %
    Non-diabetics 20 - 41 mmol/mol 4% - 5.9%
    Diabetics 48 mmol/mol 6.5%
    Diabetics at higher risk of hypoglycemia 59 mmol/mol 7.5%

    HbA1c levels between 5.7% and 6.4% indicate increased risk of diabetes (prediabetes).
    What are the benefits of lowering HbA1c?



    Two large-scale studies - the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) and the Diabetes C ontrol and Complications Trial (DCCT) - demonstrated that improving HbA1c by 1% (or 11 mmol/mol) for people with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes cuts the risk of microvascular complications by 25%.
    Microvascular complications include:
    Retinopathy
    Neuropathy

    Diabetic NephropathyResearch has also shown that people with type 2 diabetes who reduce their HbA1c level by 1% are:

    • 19% less likely to suffer cataracts
    • 16% less likely to suffer heart failure
    • 43% less likely to suffer amputation or death due to peripheral vascular disease .

    How does HbA1c differ from a blood glucose level?

    HbA1c provides a longer-term trend, similar to an average, of how high your blood sugar levels have been over a period of time.


    An HbA1c reading can be taken from blood from a finger but is often taken from a blood sample that is taken from your arm.

    Blood glucose level is the concentration of glucose in your blood at a single point in time, i.e. the very moment of the test. This is measured using a fasting plasma glucose test, which can be carried out using blood taken from a finger or can be taken from a blood sample from the arm.
    However, fasting glucose tests provide an indication of your current glucose levels only, whereas the HbA1c test serves as an overall marker of what your average levels are over a period of 2-3 months.
    HbA1c can be expressed as a percentage (DCCT unit) or as a value in mmol/mol (IFCC unit).
    Note that the HbA1c value, which is measured in mmol/mol, should not be confused with a blood glucose level which is measured in mmol/l.




    Last edited by PriyagauthamH; 3rd Dec 2013 at 11:09 PM.
    Priya


  3. #3
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    Re: Common Blood values .....

    Hi Dear,

    Thanks for sharing useful medical informations.



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    Re: Common Blood values .....

    Priya,

    This thread is going to be useful for many members.....thanks a lot dear....

    Jayanthy





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    Re: Common Blood values .....

    Hi Priya!

    Thanks for your effort and service to our members. Will be very useful everybody.



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    Re: Common Blood values .....

    Welcome Shakti , Jaya ka and Sumi ka ...........

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    Priya


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    Re: Common Blood values .....

    hai priya.... how i missed this post.....thanks for the information...

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    Re: Common Blood values .....

    Hi Chithu ka , Rudhra kettanga indha question adhaan ........ Unga question ninaivu irukku ...But answer technical aa irukku .......so trying to work on it .... Hopefully before new year will have managed to post it ..... Innaiku Kesavan anna (tnkesavan) cholestrol pathi post pottu irukkar paarunga ka .......

    chitramumbai likes this.
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    Re: Common Blood values .....

    Quote Originally Posted by PriyagauthamH View Post
    Hi Chithu ka , Rudhra kettanga indha question adhaan ........ Unga question ninaivu irukku ...But answer technical aa irukku .......so trying to work on it .... Hopefully before new year will have managed to post it ..... Innaiku Kesavan anna (tnkesavan) cholestrol pathi post pottu irukkar paarunga ka .......


    ok மா பார்க்கிறேன் ...thanks ...


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