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மெய்ப்பொருள் - Nutrition & Growth Checklist for Kids


Discussions on "மெய்ப்பொருள் - Nutrition & Growth Checklist for Kids" in "Health and Kids Food" forum.


  1. #11
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Nutrition & Growth Checklist for Kids

    9. During an illness, children need additional fluids and encouragement to eat regular meals, and breastfeeding infants need to breastfeed more often. After an illness, children need to be offered more food than usual to replenish the energy and nourishment lost due to the illness.

    When children are sick, such as when they have diarrhoea, measles or pneumonia, their appetite decreases and their body uses food less effectively. If the child is sick several times a year, his or her growth will slow or stop.

    It is very important to encourage a sick child to eat. This can be difficult, as children who are ill may not be hungry. The parent or other caregiver should keep offering foods the child likes, a little at a time and as often as possible. Extra breastfeeding is especially important since it can provide nutrients required for recovery from infections.


    It is essential to encourage a sick child to drink as often as possible. Dehydration (lack of fluids in the body) is a serious problem for children with diarrhoea. Drinking plenty of liquids will help prevent dehydration. When a child has diarrhoea, giving him or her oral rehydration salts (ORS) dissolved in clean water, along with foods and liquids, can help prevent dehydration. Giving the child a zinc supplement every day for 10–14 days can reduce the severity of the diarrhoea. The child is not fully recovered from an illness until he or she weighs about as much as when the illness began.


    A child can die from persistent diarrhoea if it is not treated quickly. If diarrhoea and poor appetite persist for more than a few days, the mother, father or other caregiver needs to consult a trained health worker.



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  2. #12
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Nutrition & Growth Checklist for Kids

    10. Very thin and/or swollen children need special medical care. They should be taken to a trained health worker or health facility for assessment and treatment.

    A short period of inadequate nutrition together with illness or infection can quickly make a child dangerously malnourished. The child needs urgent treatment with special foods and medicine. He or she should be taken directly to the nearest health-care provider.

    Children with severe acute malnutrition are very thin. They may also have swollen parts of the body, usually the feet and the legs. A trained health worker can identify severe acute malnutrition by measuring the child’s weight and height, using a special band to measure the upper arms or checking for equal swelling in both legs.


    Treating a child with severe acute malnutrition effectively needs to be done by a health-care provider. The treatment depends on how sick the child is. Most children over 6 months old can be treated with a special ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF). This is a soft pre-packaged food that contains all the nutrients needed for the child’s recovery. RUTF is easy for children to consume directly from the packet and requires no mixing with water or other foods, making it safe to use anywhere. Parents or other caregivers are provided with a week’s supply of RUTF, along with information on how to treat the child. Medications are also provided as part of the treatment.The child should be taken back to the health-care provider every week to monitor his or her progress.


    More intensive treatment is needed for children who are not able to eat RUTF, have other medical problems or are under 6 months old. These cases should be referred to a hospital or other facility that can provide 24-hour medical care, therapeutic milks and breastfeeding support.


    Children with severe acute malnutrition get cold more quickly than other children, so they must always be kept warm. Skin-to-skin contact with the mother or other caregiver can help keep a child warm. Both the mother and child should be covered. The child’s head should also be kept covered.


    Although children with severe acute malnutrition need special nutritional treatment, breastmilk is still a vital source of nutrients and protection from disease. In addition to the special treatment (either at home or in a facility), children who are breastfeeding should continue to breastfeed.



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  3. #13
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Nutrition & Growth Checklist for Kids

    DIARRHOEA

    KEY MESSAGES

    1.
    Diarrhoea kills children by draining liquid from the body, which dehydrates the child. As soon as diarrhoea starts, it is essential to give the child extra fluids along with regular foods and fluids.

    2.
    A child’s life is in danger if she or he has several watery stools within an hour or if there is blood in the stool. Immediate help from a trained health worker is needed.

    3.
    Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and continued breastfeeding after six months can reduce the risks associated with diarrhoea. Immunization against rotavirus (where recommended and available) reduces deaths from diarrhoea caused by this virus. Vitamin A and zinc supplementation can reduce the risk of diarrhoea.

    4.
    A child with diarrhoea needs to continue eating regularly. While recovering, she or he needs to be offered more food than usual to replenish the energy and nourishment lost due to the illness.

    5.
    A child with diarrhoea should receive oral rehydration salts (ORS) solution and a daily zinc supplement for 10–14 days. Diarrhoea medicines are generally ineffective and can be harmful.

    6.
    To prevent diarrhoea, all faeces, including those of infants and young children, should be disposed of in a latrine or toilet or buried.

    7.
    Good hygiene practices and use of safe drinking water protect against diarrhoea. Hands should be thoroughly washed with soap and water or a substitute, such as ash and water, after defecating and after contact with faeces, and before touching or preparing food or feeding children.



    Last edited by rameshshan; 21st Aug 2012 at 04:35 PM.
    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

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  4. #14
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Nutrition & Growth Checklist for Kids

    1. Diarrhoea kills children by draining liquid from the body, which dehydrates the child. As soon as diarrhoea starts, it is essential to give the child extra fluids along with regular foods and fluids.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION

    A child has diarrhoea when she or he passes three or more watery stools a day. The more numerous the watery stools, the more dangerous the diarrhoea.


    Some people think that drinking liquids makes diarrhoea worse.
    This is not true. A child with diarrhoea should be given drinks, including breastmilk, as often as possible. Drinking lots of liquids helps to replace the fluids lost during diarrhoea.

    Recommended drinks for a child with diarrhoea include:

    breastmilk (mothers should breastfeed more often than usual)
    oral rehydration salts (ORS) mixed with the proper amount of clean water (refer to the box on ORS after Message 5)
    soups
    rice water
    fresh fruit juices
    coconut water
    clean water from a safe source. If there is a possibility the water is not clean and safe to drink, it should be purified by boiling, filtering, adding chlorine or disinfecting with sunlight in accordance with information provided by a trained health worker or extension agent.

    To avoid dehydration, breastfed children should breastfeed as often as possible. Children who are not breastfeeding should drink the following amounts of liquids every time a watery stool is passed:

    for a child under the age of 2 years: between 14 and 12 of a large (250-millilitre) cup
    for a child 2 years or older: between 12 and 1 whole large (250-millilitre) cup.

    Drinks should be given from a clean cup. A feeding bottle should not be used. It is difficult to clean bottles completely, and unclean bottles can contain germs that cause diarrhoea.


    If the child vomits, the caregiver should wait 10 minutes and then begin again to give the drink to the child slowly, small sips at a time.


    The child should be given extra liquids in addition to regular foods and drinks until the diarrhoea has stopped.


    Diarrhoea usually stops after three or four days. If it lasts longer, parents or other caregivers should seek help from a trained health worker.



    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

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  5. #15
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Nutrition & Growth Checklist for Kids

    2. A child’s life is in danger if she or he has several watery stools within an hour or if there is blood in the stool. Immediate help from a trained health worker is needed.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION

    Parents should immediately seek help from a trained health worker if the child:


    passes several watery stools in an hour
    passes blood in the stool
    vomits frequently
    has a fever
    is extremely thirsty
    does not want to drink
    refuses to eat
    has sunken eyes
    looks weak or is lethargic
    has had diarrhoea for several days.

    If the child has
    any of these signs, help from a trained health worker is needed urgently. In the meantime, the child should be given ORS solution and/or other liquids, plus zinc.

    If the child passes several watery stools in one hour and vomits, there is cause for alarm – these are possible signs of cholera. Cholera can kill children in a matter of hours. Medical help should be sought
    immediately and the child should continue to receive ORS solution and zinc.

    Cholera can spread throughout the community quickly through contaminated water or food. Cholera usually occurs in situations where there is poor sanitation and overcrowding.

    There are four steps to take to limit the spread of cholera or diarrhoea:

    1. Always wash hands with soap and water or a substitute, such as ash and water, after defecation, after contact with faeces, before touching or preparing food, before eating and before feeding children.

    2. Dispose of all faeces, including those of infants and young children, in a latrine or toilet, or bury them. Disinfect the places touched by the faeces.

    3. Use safe drinking water.

    4. Wash, peel or cook all foods.


    Trained health workers and health centres should provide families and communities with clear information on the risks of diarrhoea and cholera and what steps to take when either one occurs.



    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

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  6. #16
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Nutrition & Growth Checklist for Kids

    3. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and continued breastfeeding after six months can reduce the risks associated with diarrhoea. Immunization against rotavirus (where recommended and available) reduces deaths from diarrhoea caused by this virus. Vitamin A and zinc supplementation can reduce the risk of diarrhoea.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION

    Breastmilk is the best source of liquid and food for a young child with diarrhoea. It is nutritious and clean and helps fight illness and infections. An infant who is fed only breastmilk in her or his first six months of life is less likely to get diarrhoea during this time.

    Breastmilk prevents dehydration and malnutrition and helps replace lost fluids. Mothers are sometimes advised to give less breastmilk if a child has diarrhoea. This advice is wrong. Mothers should breastfeed more often than usual when the child has diarrhoea. Fathers should support mothers who are breastfeeding by caring for the sick child and other children in the family, and by helping with household tasks.

    Rotavirus causes diarrhoea. Children should be immunized against rotavirus in countries that offer this vaccination.

    Vitamin A supplementation, particularly in areas deficient in vitamin A, is an important measure to reduce the risk of diarrhoea. Foods that contain vitamin A include breastmilk, liver, fish, dairy products, orange or yellow fruits and vegetables, and green leafy vegetables.

    Including zinc as part of the treatment for diarrhoea for 10–14 days helps to reduce its severity and duration, and also protects the child from future diarrhoea episodes for up to two months. Children over 6 months of age can take 20 milligrams per day of zinc (tablet or syrup). For children under 6 months, 10 milligrams per day (tablet or syrup) is an appropriate amount.

    The trained health worker should show the mother, father or other caregiver how to give the child a zinc tablet by dissolving it in a small amount of expressed breastmilk, ORS or clean water in a small cup or spoon. If the child is too young for a tablet, zinc syrup can be used.


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  7. #17
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Nutrition & Growth Checklist for Kids

    4. A child with diarrhoea needs to continue eating regularly. While recovering, she or he needs to be offered more food than usual to replenish the energy and nourishment lost due to the illness.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION

    A child with diarrhoea loses weight and can quickly become malnourished. A child with diarrhoea needs all the foods and fluids, including breastmilk, she or he can take. Nutritious foods will help the child recover more quickly.

    A child with diarrhoea may not want to eat or may vomit, so feeding can be difficult. Breastfeeding should be more frequent. If the child is 6 months of age or older, parents and other caregivers should encourage the child to eat as often as possible, offering small amounts of soft, mashed foods or foods the child likes. These foods should contain a small amount of salt. Soft foods are easier to eat and contain more fluid than hard foods.

    Recommended foods for a child with diarrhoea are well-mashed mixes of cereals and beans, fish, well-cooked meat, yogurt and fruits. A little oil can be added to cereal and vegetables, about 1 or 2 teaspoons. Foods should be freshly prepared and given to the child five or six times a day.

    After the diarrhoea stops, extra feeding is vital for a full recovery. At this time, the child needs to be given more food than usual, including breastmilk, to help replenish the energy and nourishment lost due to the diarrhoea.

    A child is not fully recovered from diarrhoea until she or he is at least the same weight as when the illness began.


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    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

    Ramesh

  8. #18
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Nutrition & Growth Checklist for Kids

    Good information Ramesh.......I feel, along with the above said, the most important thing is to give water mixed with equal qty. of salt and sugar, in short intervals, for recouping the dehydration.

    rameshshan likes this.
    Jayanthy





  9. #19
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Nutrition & Growth Checklist for Kids

    Yes Jayanthy..u r right.

    Next post shall be in regard to rehydration only..

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  10. #20
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Nutrition & Growth Checklist for Kids

    5. A child with diarrhoea should receive oral rehydration salts (ORS) solution and a daily zinc supplement for 10–14 days. Diarrhoea medicines are generally ineffective and can be harmful.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION

    Diarrhoea usually cures itself in three to four days with rehydration (drinking a lot of liquids). The real danger is the loss of liquid and nutrients from the child’s body, which can cause dehydration and malnutrition.

    A child with diarrhoea should never be given any tablets, antibiotics or other medicines unless prescribed by a trained health worker.

    The best treatment for diarrhoea is to (1) drink lots of liquids and oral rehydration salts (ORS), properly mixed with clean water from a safe source, and (2) take zinc tablets or syrup for 10–14 days.


    ORS Solution
    A special drink for diarrhea
    What is ORS? ORS (oral rehydration salts) is a special combination of dry salts that is mixed with safe water. It can help replace the fluids lost due to diarrhoea.
    When should ORS
    be used?
    When a child has three or more loose stools in a day, begin to give ORS. In addition, for 10–14 days, give children over 6 months of age 20 milligrams of zinc per day (tablet or syrup); give children under 6 months of age 10 milligrams per day (tablet or syrup).
    Where can ORS be
    obtained?
    In most countries, ORS packets are available from health centres, pharmacies, markets and shops.
    How is the ORS drink
    prepared?
    1. _Put the contents of the ORS packet in a clean container. Check the packet for directions and add the correct amount of clean water. Too little water could make the diarrhoea worse.
    2. _Add water only. Do not add ORS to milk, soup, fruit juice or soft drinks. Do not add sugar.
    3. Stir well, and feed it to the child from a clean cup. Do not use a bottle.
    How much ORS
    drink to give?
    Encourage the child to drink as much as possible.

    A child under the age of 2 years needs at least 1⁄4 to 1⁄2 of a large (250-millilitre) cup of the ORS drink after each watery stool.

    A child aged 2 years or older needs at least 1⁄2 to 1 whole large (250-millilitre) cup of the ORS drink after each watery stool.
    What if ORS is not
    available?
    Give the child a drink made with 6 level teaspoons of sugar and 1⁄2 level teaspoon of salt dissolved in 1 litre of clean water.

    Be very careful to mix the correct amounts. Too much sugar can make the diarrhoea worse. Too much salt can be extremely harmful to the child.

    Making the mixture a little too diluted (with more than 1 litre of clean water) is not harmful.
    Diarrhoea usually stops in three or four days.
    If it does not stop, consult a trained health worker.


    Last edited by rameshshan; 24th Aug 2012 at 10:28 AM.
    jv_66 likes this.
    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

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