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மெய்ப்பொருள் - Nutrition & Growth Checklist for Kids


Discussions on "மெய்ப்பொருள் - Nutrition & Growth Checklist for Kids" in "Health and Kids Food" forum.


  1. #21
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Nutrition & Growth Checklist for Kids

    6. To prevent diarrhoea, all faeces, including those of infants and young children, should be disposed of in a latrine or toilet or buried.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION

    Children and adults can swallow germs that cause diarrhoea if faeces come in contact with drinking water, food, hands, utensils or food preparation surfaces.

    Flies that settle on faeces and then on food also transmit the germs that cause diarrhoea. To keep away flies and prevent the spread of germs, (1) dispose of faeces safely in a latrine or toilet, (2) keep the latrine or toilet clean, and (3) cover food and drinking water.

    All faeces, even those of infants and young children, carry germs and are dangerous. If children defecate without using the latrine or toilet, their faeces should be cleaned up immediately and disposed of in the latrine or toilet or buried. Afterwards, hands should always be washed with soap and water. If soap is not available, ash and water can be used as a substitute. Men and boys can help women and girls in disposing of the faeces.

    If there is no toilet or latrine, adults and children should defecate away from houses, paths, water supplies and places where children play. Faeces should then be buried under a layer of soil. Human and animal faeces should be kept away from water sources.

    In communities without toilets or latrines, the community should consider joining together to build such facilities. Households can be encouraged to build their own.



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  2. #22
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Nutrition & Growth Checklist for Kids

    7. Good hygiene practices and use of safe drinking water protect against diarrhoea. Hands should be thoroughly washed with soap and water or a substitute, such as ash and water, after defecating and after contact with faeces, and before touching or preparing food or feeding children.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION

    Hands should always be washed with soap and water or a substitute, such as ash and water, after defecating, after helping children use the toilet or latrine, after cleaning the baby’s bottom, after disposing of refuse, and immediately before feeding children, handling food or eating.

    Young children frequently put their hands in their mouths. So it is important to keep the household area clean and to teach children to wash their hands properly and frequently, especially after defecating and before eating.

    Using safe drinking water and keeping it clean and free of germs helps to reduce diarrhoea.

    Other hygiene measures that can help to prevent diarrhoea include:

    ● peel fruit and vegetables or wash them thoroughly with clean water, especially if young children eat them raw

    ● prepare and thoroughly cook food just before eating (Food left standing can collect germs that can cause diarrhoea. After two hours, cooked foods are not safe unless they are kept very hot or very cold.)

    ● bury, burn or safely dispose of all food refuse to stop flies from spreading disease.


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  3. #23
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Nutrition & Growth Checklist for Kids

    COUGHS, COLDS AND MORE SERIOUS ILLNESSES

    Coughs, colds, sore throats and runny noses are common in the lives of children. Usually they are no cause for alarm.

    In some cases, however, coughs are danger signs of more serious illnesses, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis. Pneumonia is the world’s leading cause of death in girls and boys under age 5, closely followed by diarrhoea. Around 2 million children die from pneumonia every year. Pneumonia kills more children than AIDS, malaria and measles combined. One out of every five deaths of children under age 5 is caused by this respiratory infection.

    All girls and boys have the right to quality health care to make sure that respiratory infections and other illnesses are accurately diagnosed and treated before it is too late.

    Key Messages:

    What every family and community has a right to know about 'COUGHS, COLDS AND MORE SERIOUS ILLNESSES'

    1. A child with a cough or cold should be kept warm and encouraged to eat and drink as much as possible.

    2. Sometimes, coughs are signs of a serious problem. A child who is breathing rapidly or with difficulty might have pneumonia, an infection of the lungs. This is a life-threatening disease. The child needs immediate treatment from a trained health worker, who can also provide a referral to a health facility.

    3. Families can help prevent pneumonia by making sure babies are exclusively breastfed for the first six months and that all children are well nourished and fully immunized.

    4. A child who has a prolonged cough that persists for more than three weeks needs immediate medical attention. The child may have tuberculosis, an infection in the lungs.

    5. Children and pregnant women exposed to smoke from tobacco or cooking fires are particularly at risk of pneumonia or other breathing illnesses.


    Last edited by rameshshan; 27th Aug 2012 at 12:53 PM.
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  4. #24
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Nutrition & Growth Checklist for Kids

    1. A child with a cough or cold should be kept warm and encouraged to eat and drink as much as possible.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION

    Babies and very young children lose their body heat easily. When they have a cough or cold they should be kept covered and warm.

    Children with coughs, colds, runny noses or sore throats who are breathing normally can be treated at home and will recover without medicines. They need to be kept warm, but not overheated, and to be given plenty to eat and drink. Medicines should be used only if prescribed by a trained health worker.

    A child with a fever needs careful attention. She or he should be sponged or bathed with cool but not cold water. The child should be kept well hydrated with additional fluids. In areas where malaria is common, the fever could be caused by malaria, which is dangerous to the health and survival of the child. A child with a fever in these areas should be checked by a trained health worker immediately.

    The nose of a child with a cough or cold should be cleared often, especially before the child eats or goes to sleep. A moist atmosphere can make breathing easier. It can help if the child breathes water vapour from a bowl of water that is hot but not boiling. The parent or other caregiver should make certain the water is not too hot and that the child is carefully supervised when breathing the water vapour.

    A breastfed child who has a cough or cold may have difficulty breastfeeding. Since breastfeeding helps to fight the illness and is important for the child’s growth, the mother should continue to breastfeed often. If a child cannot suckle, the breastmilk can be expressed into a clean cup and the child can then be fed from the cup by the mother, father or other caregiver. Before putting the baby to the breast or feeding the baby breastmilk (or breastmilk substitute) from a cup, it helps to clear the baby’s nose if it is blocked with secretions.

    Children who are 6 months of age or older should be encouraged to breastfeed, eat and drink frequently. When the illness is over, the child should be given extra nutritious foods every day until she or he is at least the same weight as before the illness.

    Coughs and colds spread easily. People with coughs and colds should avoid coughing, sneezing or spitting near children. They should cough or sneeze into their elbow or a tissue and dispose safely of the tissue. This should be followed by hand washing with soap. This helps stop the spread of germs.


    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

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  5. #25
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Nutrition & Growth Checklist for Kids

    2. Sometimes, coughs are signs of a serious problem. A child who is breathing rapidly or with difficulty might have pneumonia, an infection of the lungs. This is a life-threatening disease. The child needs immediate treatment from a trained health worker, who can also provide a referral to a health facility.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION

    Most coughs, colds, fevers, sore throats and runny noses end without requiring medication. But sometimes a cough and a fever are signs of pneumonia, which needs to be treated by a trained health worker.

    If a trained health worker provides antibiotics to treat the pneumonia, it is important to follow the instructions and give the child all the medicine for as long as the instructions say, even if the child seems better.

    Many children die of pneumonia at home because their parents or other caregivers do not realize the seriousness of the illness and the need for immediate medical care. Millions of child deaths from pneumonia can be prevented if:

    ● parents and other caregivers know that rapid and difficult breathing is a danger sign, requiring urgent medical help

    ● parents and other caregivers know where to get medical help

    ● medical help and appropriate and low-cost antibiotics are readily available.

    The child should be taken immediately to a trained health worker or clinic if any of the following symptoms are present:

    ● the child is breathing much more quickly than usual: from birth to 59 days – 60 breaths a minute; 2 months to 12 months – 50 breaths a minute or more; over 12 months to 5 years – 40 breaths a minute or more

    ● the child is breathing with difficulty or gasping for air

    ● the lower part of the chest sucks in when the child breathes in, or it looks as though the stomach is moving up and down

    ● the child has had a cough for more than three weeks

    ● the child is unable to breastfeed or drink

    ● the child vomits frequently.

    Health-care providers have a responsibility to provide parents and other caregivers with this information on the health risks for a child with pneumonia and the preventive steps and treatments to take.


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  6. #26
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Nutrition & Growth Checklist for Kids

    3. Families can help prevent pneumonia by making sure babies are exclusively breastfed for the first six months and that all children are well nourished and fully immunized.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION

    Breastfeeding helps to protect babies from pneumonia and other illnesses. It is important to give breastmilk alone for the first six months of a baby’s life.

    After six months of age, a child should eat a variety of healthy foods and continue to breastfeed, to ensure that she or he gets the nutrients necessary to stay healthy and be less susceptible to respiratory infections and other illnesses. Some examples of healthy foods include fruits and vegetables (including green leafy vegetables), liver, red palm oil, dairy products, fish and eggs.

    Safe water and good hygiene practices help to reduce the number of respiratory infections and other illnesses, such as diarrhoea. These practices include washing vegetables and fruits, keeping food preparation surfaces clean, and washing hands with soap and water or with a substitute, such as ash and water.

    Every child should complete a recommended series of immunizations. Early protection is critical; the immunizations in the first year and into the second year are especially important. The child will then be protected against measles, pertussis (whooping cough), tuberculosis and other respiratory illnesses, which can lead to pneumonia.

    Parents and other caregivers should ensure that both girls and boys are equally provided with a varied and healthy diet and all immunizations. Health workers can provide parents and other caregivers with information on diets, hygiene and immunizations and how they protect against pneumonia and other illnesses.


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  7. #27
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Nutrition & Growth Checklist for Kids

    4. A child who has a prolonged cough that persists for more than three weeks needs immediate medical attention. The child may have tuberculosis, an infection in the lungs.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION

    Tuberculosis is a serious disease that can kill a child or permanently damage the lungs. Families and caregivers can help prevent tuberculosis if they ensure that children:

    ● are fully immunized – BCG immunization offers some protection against some forms of tuberculosis

    ● are kept away from anyone who has tuberculosis or has a cough with blood in the sputum.

    If a trained health worker provides special medicine for tuberculosis, it is important to give the child all the medicine according to the instructions. It must be given for as long as specified, even if the child seems better. If not, the child could build up resistance to the medicine, reducing its effectiveness the next time it is needed.


    5. Children and pregnant women exposed to smoke from tobacco or cooking fires are particularly at risk of pneumonia or other breathing illnesses.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION

    Children are more likely to get pneumonia and other breathing illnesses if they live in an environment with smoke.

    Exposure to smoke can harm a child, even before birth. Pregnant women should not smoke or be exposed to smoke. Babies especially should be kept out of smoky kitchens and away from cooking fires.

    Tobacco use generally begins during adolescence. Adolescents are more likely to start smoking if (1) the adults around them smoke, (2) tobacco advertising and promotion are common, and (3) tobacco products are cheap and easily accessible. Adolescents should be encouraged to avoid smoking and caution their friends about its dangers.

    Second-hand smoke is particularly harmful to young children. It stays in the air for hours after cigarettes, pipes or cigars have been put out. Non-smokers who inhale this smoke are more vulnerable to respiratory infections, asthma and cancer.

    Parents and other caregivers need to be aware of the detrimental effects of second-hand smoke and take responsibility to refrain from smoking around children. Governments and communities can work together to inform the public of the harmful effects of smoky environments and second-hand smoke on children.


    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

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  8. #28
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Nutrition & Growth Checklist for Kids

    HYGIENE

    Young children are more vulnerable than any other age group to the ill effects of unsafe water, poor sanitation and lack of hygiene. These contribute to 88 per cent of deaths from diarrhoeal diseases. Children under 5 years old account for nearly 90 per cent of deaths from diarrhoea.

    The simple habit of handwashing with soap is estimated to reduce the incidence of diarrhoea by nearly half. It also greatly reduces the risk of respiratory infections such as pneumonia and other diseases, including eye infections, especially trachoma.

    Parents and caregivers should wash their hands with soap and water at these critical moments:

    (1) after cleaning the infant or young child who has defecated,

    (2) after helping the child use the toilet or latrine,

    (3) after going to the latrine or toilet themselves, (4) before touching food and feeding young children, and

    (5) after dealing with refuse.

    Parents and caregivers need to help children develop the habit of washing their hands with soap before eating and after using the latrine or toilet. Where soap is not available hands can be washed with ash and water. Animal and human faeces should be kept away from houses, paths, water sources and children’s play areas.

    The use of latrines and toilets together with good hygiene practices – specifically hand washing with soap – are essential public health tools. They protect children and families at little cost and help realize children’s right to good health and nutrition.

    Everyone in the community needs to work together to build and use toilets or latrines, practise good hygiene, protect water sources, and safely dispose of waste water and refuse.

    It is important for governments to support communities by providing information on how to design and build latrines and toilets that all families can afford. In urban areas particularly, government support is also needed for low-cost sanitation and drainage systems, safe drinking water and refuse collection.


    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

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  9. #29
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Nutrition & Growth Checklist for Kids

    Key Mesages :

    What every family and community has a right to know about HYGIENE

    1. All faeces, including those of babies and young children, should be disposed of safely. Making sure that all family members use a toilet, latrine or potty (for young children) is the best way to dispose of faeces. Where there is no toilet, faeces should be buried.

    2. All family members, including children, need to wash their hands thoroughly with soap and water after any contact with faeces, before touching or preparing food, and before feeding children. Where soap is not available, a substitute, such as ash and water, can be used.

    3 Washing the face and hands with soap and water every day helps to prevent eye infections. In some parts of the world, eye infections can lead to trachoma, which can cause blindness.

    4. All water that people drink and use should come from a safe source or be purified. Containers for carrying and storing water need to be kept clean inside and outside and covered to keep the water clean. Where necessary, home-based water treatment, such as boiling, filtering, adding chlorine or disinfecting with sunlight, should be used to purify the water.

    5. Raw or leftover cooked food can be dangerous. Raw food should be washed or cooked. Cooked food should be eaten without delay or thoroughly reheated before eating.

    6. Food, utensils and preparation surfaces should be kept clean and away from animals. Food should be stored in covered containers.

    7. Safe disposal of all household refuse helps to keep the living environment clean and healthy. This helps prevent illness.

    8. Hygiene is very important during menstruation. Clean and dry feminine hygiene products should be available to girls and women. A clean, private space should be provided to allow them to clean themselves and wash and dry their cloths. Sanitary napkins need to be disposed of carefully with other refuse or burned.


    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

    Ramesh

  10. #30
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Nutrition & Growth Checklist for Kids

    1. All faeces, including those of babies and young children, should be disposed of safely. Making sure that all family members use a toilet, latrine or potty (for young children) is the best way to dispose of faeces. Where there is no toilet, faeces should be buried.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION

    Many illnesses, especially diarrhoea, come from germs found in human faeces. If the germs get into water or onto food, hands, utensils or surfaces used for preparing and serving food, they can be swallowed and cause illness. Safe disposal of all faeces – both human and animal – is the single most important action to prevent the spread of germs by people or flies. Human faeces need to be put down a toilet or latrine, or buried.

    All faeces, including those of babies and young children, carry germs and are dangerous. If children defecate without using a toilet or latrine, their faeces should be cleaned up immediately and flushed down the toilet or put down the latrine or buried. Parents’ or other caregivers’ and children’s hands should then be washed with soap and water or a substitute, such as ash and water.

    If it is not possible to use a toilet or latrine, everyone should always defecate well away from houses, paths, water sources and places where children play. The faeces should then be buried immediately. Animal faeces also need to be kept away from the houses, paths and areas where children play.

    Latrines and toilets need to be cleaned frequently. Latrines should be kept covered and toilets should be flushed. A clean latrine attracts fewer flies. People are more likely to use a clean latrine. Local governments and non-governmental organizations can often advise households and communities on the design, materials and construction for building low-cost sanitary latrines.

    In urban areas, the government and communities should work together to determine how to install low-cost latrines or toilets, sanitation and drainage systems, safe drinking water and refuse collection.


    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

    Ramesh

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