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Brain linked to diabetes, hope for new treatment


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    Brain linked to diabetes, hope for new treatment

    Brain linked to diabetes, hope for new treatment

    Diabetes, traditionally linked to a rise in blood sugar level due to a combination of lifestyle and hereditary risks, may also have some connection with the brain.

    In a mega study, a team of Indian scientists have discovered a neurological link to Type II diabetes (T2D), a finding that could open new pathways for treatment of the ailment.

    In doing so, 37 scientists led by Dwaipayan Bhardwaj of CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB) and Nikhil Tandon of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) also achieved a first of sorts when the research team studied two ethnic populations, including Indo-Europeans and Dravidians , to learn more about diabetes.

    "We have identified a new locus associated with T2D. It harbours genes—TMEM 163, RAB3GAP1 and ACMSDIwhich are involved in neurologic processes , suggesting a neurologic component in T2D," said the scientists reporting their findings in Diabetes journal of the American Diabetes Association. They added that studies were conducted on 12,535 individuals.

    1st genome study for diabetes

    A study has linked rise in blood sugar to a combination of lifestyle and hereditary risks. "In the initial phase, we performed genome scan of 2,465 subjects and replicated the top signals in two ethnic groups of the country comprising 7,221 Indo-Europeans and 2,849 Dravidian subjects. These two ethnic groups are genetically diverse due to different ancestral backgrounds," said lead scientist Dwaipayan Bhardwaj.

    According to AIIMs endocrinology professor Dr Nikhil Tandon the finding could also lead to new line of targeted treatments for the disease that affects over a billion people worldwide. Samir K Brahmachari , director general of the Council of Industrial and Scientific Research, said this is also the first and the largest genome wide association study (GWAS) conducted for any complex disorder conceived and executed entirely in the developing world. "Further work on functionally validating this genomic discovery has already been initiated," scientists said.

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    Last edited by sumathisrini; 14th Nov 2012 at 11:49 AM. Reason: External link removed
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    Re: Brain linked to diabetes, hope for new treatment

    Dear Viji, the information on Brain linked to diabetes, hope for new treatment is so new and very important. thanks for sharing





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    Re: Brain linked to diabetes, hope for new treatment

    Diabetes can cause deafness, says study

    Diabetes doesn't just cause blindness — it could also make you deaf, a study has warned.

    According to researchers , patients with diabetes have a significantly higher prevalence of hearing impairment than patients without the disease. They note that the finding is likely to be independent of the effect of aging or a noisy environment.

    The number of those with impaired hearing more than doubled in the period from 1995 to 2004, researchers said.

    "The link between hearing impairment with diabetes is controversial, but it is believed that over time, high blood glucose levels can damage vessels in the stria vascularis and nerves diminishing the ability to hear," said Chika Horikawa from Japan. the lead author of the study.

    "We found persons with diabetes had more than two times higher prevalence of hearing impairment than those without diabetes," Horikawa said.

    Last edited by sumathisrini; 16th Nov 2012 at 02:36 PM. Reason: External link removed

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    Re: Brain linked to diabetes, hope for new treatment

    The Drink That Lowers Your Risk of Diabetes


    Worried about your blood glucose levels? Have some tea. In a study of 42 countries, researchers found that higher black tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Researchers looked at countrywide sales of black tea and compared that data with rates of respiratory, infectious, and cardiovascular diseases, in addition to cancer and diabetes, as reported by the World Health Organization’s World Health Survey.
    The research, published online in the journal BMJ Open, found that on average, a population that consumes double the amount of black tea compared to another country about 25 percent fewer cases of diabetes. There was no association with black tea consumption and the other four health indicators.

    Swiss research agency Data Mining International and Unilever, the makers of Lipton tea, carried out the study.

    “This study is very interesting because it confirms a lot of different, small studies on the health benefits of black tea,” says Ariel Beresniak, Ph.D., chief executive officer of Data Mining International. Previous studies have pointed to evidence that black tea has antidiabetes properties, including that it improves pancreatic function in glucose-intolerant rats.

    Want to get the most out of your cup? Follow our guide for the optimal water temperature and steeping time for five kinds of tea.

    Newsflash: Tea isn’t just for old ladies and British crumpet-dunkers. This ancient brew has a long list of benefits that you, too, can tap, and luckily, there’s a type of leaf for any liking.

    Technically, all true teas do come from leaves—those of the camellia sinensis plant. (Some common brews masquerading as tea: chamomile, rooibos, and sassafras). The different varieties are distinguished by how, and how much, those leaves are processed. In general, the more oxidized (exposed to air) the leaves are, the hotter the water used to steep them should be.

    For the fullest flavor, loose-leaf teas > prepackaged bags (and are better for multiple cups if you’re the re-steeping type). Steeping at the correct temperature and time can make a difference, too; too long a steep can make your cup bitter by releasing too many of the tea’s tannins.

    Now that you can brew any pot like a pro, pick the leaf that’s right for you and get to it!

    Black
    Probably the most basic and common variety (it’s the basis for most iced tea), and the one that’s oxidized the longest, black tea is also usually the most caffeinated, delivering about 20 percent as much of a buzz as coffee. Varieties you may know: Earl Gray and English Breakfast. Steep in very hot, almost-boiling water for 3-5 minutes.

    Green
    This superdrink is lighter in color and flavor than black tea, and often paired with fruits or florals. Some varieties can be high in tannins (the same compounds in red wine), which deliver a dry, pucker-inducing mouthfeel along with their health benefits. Steep in not-yet-bubbling water for 1-3 minutes.

    Oolong or Wu Long
    Consider this your Goldilocks tea—not as strong as black, but not as mild as green, and caffeine-free. It’s the traditional variety served in many Chinese restaurants. Steep times vary, so check the package. Normally, just-boiling water works well.

    White
    The name comes from silvery fibers that adorn the tea plant, pre-processing. It’s a little sweeter than some other types, but has more antioxidants than many fruits and veggies. Steep in not-yet-boiling water for just about a minute.

    Pu-erh
    A favorite in China, pu-erh starts out as a type of green tea, then undergoes a special oxidation process. It’s touted as a digestive aid, metabolism sparker, and even a hangover remedy. The science isn’t on the books, but a mug of this after a long night out—whether for dinner or adult beverages—can’t hurt. Steep in boiling water for 2-4 minutes.

    Last edited by sumathisrini; 19th Nov 2012 at 11:50 AM. Reason: External link removed

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    Re: Brain linked to diabetes, hope for new treatment

    More shots of stem cells to cure type 2 diabetes

    Now more shots of stem cells have been found to cure type 2 diabetes. Improvising upon its study in 2008, PGI which has tried 2 shots of stem cells has found that the rate of success increased from 70% to 80%. Out of 10 patients who were given the shots of .3 billion stem cells from their own body , 9 were off insulin completely.
    In an animal study it was established that the stem cells that went inside the pancreas kicked the residual beta cell function to regenerate the pancreas. "This implies that more the number of stem cells induced, better is the result as it keeps the type 2 diabetics off insulin," said Dr Anil Bhansali, main author of the study published in an international journal-Cell Transplantation.

    The study is in collaboration with the Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO). Before the stem cell therapy is introduced in the PGI as a regenerative medicine, more work and multicentric trials are required. as Dr Bhansali said, "We are roping in centres in Mumbai and the AIIMS for the trials before we start the stem cell as a medicine in the PGI."

    Besides the 10 patients, there were 11 candidates enrolled for the study as a control group and were kept on saline. "These patients also showed an improvement of 25%. But this is insignificant as the success is counted when it is more than 50% in stem cell induction.

    The average age of the diabetic person was 55 years. "We gave them shots after an interval of three months which improved the functioning of the pancreas. Presently we are working on the path of the stem cells on animal mode. We want to know how many cells enter the pancreas," said Dr Bhansali. He added, "The cells also enter the liver and other organs. But they are not cancerous as they are from the patient's own bone marrow."

    Last edited by Parasakthi; 22nd Nov 2012 at 12:22 AM. Reason: External Link Removed

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    Re: Brain linked to diabetes, hope for new treatment

    10 quick nutrition tips for diabetics

    Having diabetes does not necessarily mean surviving on tasteless food. You can still enjoy all your favourite foods.

    In fact, it means being aware of how you eat, what you do to be able to eat it and how much you eat. Today, Sunita Pathania - Sr. Registered Dietician and Diabetes Educator, Healthy Living Diet Clinic, Mumbai, helps you out with some quick nutrition tips to develop a diet plan that is right for you and will help keep your diabetes and blood sugar level in control. Eat foods, which are low in fat and high in fiber.

    Prefer artificially sweetened beverages.

    If you enjoy sweet drinks, then go for the ones which have artificial sweetener.

    Avoid sugar sweetened beverages like regular sodas, energy drinks, sugar sweetened tea and coffee.

    If you want juice everyday, then limit it only to ½ cup every day. Prefer having it with your meal. Use orange, grapefruit, apple, grape or cranberry juice.

    Avoid concentrated sweets like candies, cookies, cakes and pies.

    Eat three different meals throughout the day and follow the same time. Never skip meals. Avoid alcohols.

    Cut back on your serving size e.g. ½ cups of fruits and pasta or 1 slice of bread.

    Do not get fooled by over expensive, sugar free products. Before buying it, consult your doctor

    Last edited by Parasakthi; 22nd Nov 2012 at 12:22 AM. Reason: External Link Removed

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    Re: Brain linked to diabetes, hope for new treatment

    Top 6 survival skills for diabetes

    Diabetes affects millions of people and is a very serious lifelong health problem. However, keeping diabetes in control is a difficult task as more than half of the care for diabetes is self driven.

    This makes it important to be self-aware, and skilled in these care methods. Today, on World Diabetes Day 2012, Ms. Sunita Pathania - Sr. Registered Dietician and Diabetes Educator, Healthy Living Diet Clinic, Mumbai, shares a few steps to help you manage diabetes better.

    Survival step 1: Diabetes and its treatment

    Diabetes is a condition that causes high blood sugar. It cannot be completely cured but it can definitely be managed. There are basically two types of diabetes, the first being Type 1 diabetes, wherein the body's immune system destroys the insulin producing cells in the pancreas. Due to low insulin level, it is treated with daily insulin injections and a healthy diet. The second type is Type 2 diabetes, here the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or does not use insulin efficiently. It is treated by implementing a diet modification, exercise plan or oral medication.

    Survival step 2: Time-to-time medication

    Medicines and injections are very important to manage your diabetes level. Whichever medicines your doctor prescribes for you, take detailed information about its dosage, and follow it the way advised by your doctor. Whenever you make any appointment with any healthcare professional, take the list of all the medicines you have been advised to manage your diabetes level, to avoid any medicinal complications.

    Survival step 3: The right FOOD

    You need to take heed to what you eat to manage diabetes. Follow a diet planned for you by your dietician to maintain your weight and to lower your blood sugar. Never skip meals and eat three small meals to keep blood sugar level in control.

    Survival step 4: Self-tests

    Testing your blood sugar is the next important thing to do. This will give your healthcare the necessary information required so that he can balance between your diet, physical activity and medications accordingly. If your blood sugar falls below 70 or is above 240 more than two times in a week then call your doctor.

    Survival step 5: High and low blood sugar

    An unbalanced blood sugar level can lead to serious complications. If your blood sugars are low (less than 70) treat it immediately with 15 grams of carbohydrates like 3-4 glucose tablets, ½ juice or 1 cup skimmed milk. After this wait for 15 minutes and retest your blood sugar level. If it is still low then treat it again with 15 grams of carbohydrate. Whereas, if you have high blood sugar level, then test your blood sugar every 4 hours, drink at least 8 glasses of water to prevent dehydration and consume 45-50 grams of carbohydrates every four hours. Examples of 45-50 grams of carbohydrates are orange or grape juice 1 ½ cups, canned fruit 1 ½ cups, toast 3 slice and regular yoghurt 1 cup.

    If you have type 1 diabetes and your blood sugar is greater than 240, test for ketones at every meal.

    Survival step 6: Preventive exams

    Prevent small cuts to convert it into major complications. If you are a diabetic patient even tiny cuts can develop into a major infection that may require amputating that part of your body. Hence, check your feet daily. Go for an eye check up and complete body check up to prevent long term complications.

    Last edited by Parasakthi; 22nd Nov 2012 at 12:22 AM. Reason: External Link Removed

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    Re: Brain linked to diabetes, hope for new treatment

    How genes play a role in diabetes

    Many believe that even if you maintain a healthy lifestyle, you may still be diagnosed with diabetes.

    You may worry that your children and grandchildren's will get it too, despite everyone following a healthy lifestyle. However, unlike some qualities, diabetes does not seem to be hereditary in a simple pattern. Yet clearly, some people are more likely to get diabetes than others. Today, we have Ms. Sunita Pathania - Sr. Registered Dietician and Diabetes Educator, Healthy Living Diet Clinic, Mumbai, to help us understand the link between diabetes and genes.

    Background

    Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood glucose levels, disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both.

    Either the body has stopped making insulin (type 1 diabetes) or there is insulin but the amount of insulin is less than what is required or it is working inefficiently (type 2 diabetes).

    India today leads the world with the largest number of people with diabetes in any given country.

    The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) reports that in 2007 there were 46.5 million people in India with diabetes and that this number is expected to go to 80.3 million by 2025. What could be the cause of such a rise?

    The causes of diabetes include genetic factors, lifestyle, and viral infections.

    Genetic factors

    Some of the susceptibility to diabetes is genetic. Researchers have discovered that people with type 1 diabetes have certain genes associated with their immune response. These particular genes are often found in children with type 1 diabetes.

    However, not everyone with these genes develops clinical diabetes. Before diabetes becomes apparent, this genetic susceptibility is often triggered by the individual's lifestyle or other environmental factors. These factors cause a series of events that result in damage to or destruction of the pancreatic beta cells.

    Inheritance is even more prominent in the development of type 2 than in type 1 diabetes. Studies suggest that if both parents have type 2 diabetes, there are 90% chances of their children inheriting it. And, if one of the parents has it, then chances are 50%.

    In most cases of type 1 diabetes, people need to inherit risk factors from both parents.

    Type 1 diabetes refers to cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta islet cells which leads to absolute insulin deficiency. The autoimmune nature of type 1 diabetes has been intensively investigated and thus it is said that the pathogenesis of the disease can be explained by interplay between genetics and environment.

    The pathogenesis can be summarized as follows:

    -In a genetically predisposed individual

    -Environmental factors ( stress, toxins, viruses, diet, vaccines etc) trigger an autoimmune process (activation of T-lymphocytes reactive to islet cell antigens) that leads to

    -Destruction of islet cells and insulin deficiency

    The immune response leads to development of autoantibodies against various islet cell components, including glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-65), islet cell antibodies (ICA512/IA-2) and insulin antibodies (IAA). One and usually more of these autoantibodies are detected in 85-90% of individuals when fasting hyperglycemia is initially detected.

    Beta-cell destruction is thought to be primarily a T-cell mediated process, as evidenced by the presence of intense insulitis (an inflammation of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas) in newly diagnosed patients. Beta cell destruction is variable being more rapid in younger individuals and slower in older individuals. (Antibodies are proteins that destroy bacteria or viruses. Autoantibodies are antibodies 'gone bad,' which attack the body's own tissues.)

    Thus, we know now that type 1 and type 2 diabetes have different causes. Yet two factors are important in both. One inherits a predisposition to the disease (genes), then something in the environment triggers it.

    Genes alone are not enough. One proof of this is identical twins. Identical twins have identical genes. Yet when one twin has type 1 diabetes, the other gets the disease at most only half the time. When one twin has type 2 diabetes, the other's risk is at most 3 in 4.

    Type 2 diabetes has a stronger link to family history and lineage than type 1, although it too depends on environmental factor such as food intake and exercise. Studies of twins have shown that genetics play a very strong role in the development of type 2 diabetes but the genes involved remain poorly defined.

    Lifestyle also influences the development of type 2 diabetes. Obesity tends to run in families, and families tend to have similar eating and exercise habits.

    If you have a family history of type 2 diabetes, it may be difficult to figure out whether your diabetes is due to lifestyle factors or genetic susceptibility. Most likely it is due to both. However, don't lose heart. Studies show that it is possible to delay or prevent type 2 diabetes by exercising, eating right and thereby losing weight and delaying or preventing the onset of type 2 diabetes.

    Last edited by Parasakthi; 22nd Nov 2012 at 12:23 AM. Reason: External Link Removed

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    Re: Brain linked to diabetes, hope for new treatment

    IIT Kharagpur develops software for detecting diabetic retinopathy

    The Indian Institute of Technology - Kharagpur has developed a software for the early detection and risk categorisation of diabetic retinopathy (DR), a disease caused by the complication of diabetes that can eventually lead to blindness.

    Titled Computer Vision Approach to Diabetic Retinopathy Screening and developed by Chandan Chakrabarty of IIT-Kharagpur, the project is now being used on a pilot basis at a hospital in the city with encouraging results. It is being funded by IT major IBM India.

    "The software uses data analytics capabilities to automatically compare and analyse retina images of the patient. It can tell if the patient has DR and also provides risk categorisation ranging from low to medium and high," Chakrabarty said.

    DR is an ocular manifestation of systemic disease, which affects up to 80 percent of all patients who have had diabetes for 10 years or more.

    The project was initiated March 2011 by the IIT Kharagpur, in association with IBM India and Susrut Eye Foundation and Research Centre (SEFRC), Kolkata.

    "The solution is being used in our clinic and the results are very encouraging, in fact, the accuracy level is as high as 92 percent," said Anirudh Maity of SEFRC, where the project is being used on a pilot basis.

    Chakrabarty said the project will take at least a year more before it can be marketed commercially.

    "We are using the results generated by the prototype at the SEFRC to enhance its operations and we hope it will ready within a year. Once operational, the solution will help prevent and cure DR which has been increasingly spreading across the country," Chakrabarty told IANS.


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    Re: Brain linked to diabetes, hope for new treatment

    அக்குபிரெஷர் முறையில் சர்க்கரை அளவைக் கட்டுப்பாட்டுக்குள் கொண்டு வர

    நம் உள்ளங்கையில்தான் உடலில் உள்ள எல்லா உறுப்புகளையும் பிரதிபலிக்கும் புள்ளிகள் இருக்கின்றன. குறிப்பாக சர்க்கரையைக் கட்டுப்படுத்தும் புள்ளிகள் உள்ளங்கை, உள்ளங்கால் மற்றும் காதுகளில் இருக்கின்றன.

    இதற்கு ஆங்கிலத்தில் reflexology என்று பெயர்.

    வலது உள்ளங்கையில் சுண்டு விரலுக்குக் கீழே வலதுபுறம் இருப்பது கல்லீரல் மற்றும் பித்தப்பைக்கான புள்ளிகள்.
    சுண்டு விரலுக்குக் கீழே இருக்கும் முதல் கோடு இதயத்தின் பிரதிபலிப்பு.
    அதற்குக் கீழ் இருப்பது மண்ணீரல். நடுவில் இருக்கும் புள்ளி, கணையம். இந்தப் புள்ளிகளிலும், காலை, மாலை என இருவேளையும் 14 முறை அழுத்தம் கொடுத்து வந்தால் இரத்த ஓட்டம் சீராகி, ரத்தத்தில் இன்சுலின் சரியானபடி சுரக்க ஆரம்பிக்கும்.


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