6th Oct 2014, 02:28 PM #1461
Re: Health Bulletin
Mother's viral infection may trigger diabetes in kid
The exact cause of juvenile diabetes had eluded scientists for long and researchers have now found that a mother's exposure to viruses during pregnancy may cause type one diabetes and other auto-immune diseases in children.
In type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce insulin, a hormone needed to convert sugar, starch and other food into energy required for daily life.
Women who contract a viral infection during pregnancy transmit viruses to their genetically susceptible foetuses, sparking the development of type one diabetes, the findings showed.
"We found evidence that viral infections of the mother during pregnancy induced damage to the pancreas of the mother or the foetus, evidenced by specific anti-bodies including those affecting the pancreatic cells producing insulin," said Zvi Laron, a professor emeritus at the Tel Aviv University in Israel.
For the study, the researchers conducted blood tests of 107 healthy pregnant women, testing for islet cell autoantibodies - evidence of impending diabetes, that appears years before initial symptoms do.
The researchers also found a striking difference between women tested in different seasons, suggesting a link to winter epidemics.
During viral epidemics of the winter months, 10 percent of the healthy pregnant women, who had no family background of auto-immune diseases tested positive for damaging anti-bodies.
The study appeared in the journal Diabetic Medicine.
6th Oct 2014, 02:28 PM #1462
Re: Health Bulletin
New needle-coated capsule may replace injections
A pill coated with tiny needles that can deliver drugs directly into the lining of the digestive tract has been developed by scientists, an advance that may eliminate the need for injections.
In animal studies, researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) found that the capsule delivered insulin more efficiently than injection under the skin, and there were no harmful side effects as the capsule passed through the digestive system.
"This could be a way that the patient can circumvent the need to have an infusion or subcutaneous administration of a drug," said Giovanni Traverso, a research fellow at MIT's Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, and one of the lead authors of the study.
Although the researchers tested their capsule with insulin, they anticipate that it would be most useful for delivering biopharmaceuticals such as antibodies, which are used to treat cancer and autoimmune disorders like arthritis.
This class of drugs, known as "biologics," also includes vaccines, recombinant DNA, and RNA.
"The large size of these biologic drugs makes them nonabsorbable. And before they even would be absorbed, they're degraded in your GI tract by acids and enzymes that just eat up the molecules and make them inactive," said Carl Schoellhammer, a graduate student in chemical engineering and a lead author of the paper.
Schoellhammer, Traverso, and their colleagues set out to design a capsule that would serve as a platform for the delivery of a wide range of therapeutics, prevent degradation of the drugs, and inject the payload directly into the lining of the GI tract.
Their prototype acrylic capsule, 2 centimetres long and 1 centimetre in diameter, includes a reservoir for the drug and is coated with hollow, stainless steel needles about 5 millimetres long.
Previous studies of accidental ingestion of sharp objects in human patients have suggested that it could be safe to swallow a capsule coated with short needles.
Since there are no pain receptors in the GI tract, patients would not feel any pain from the drug injection.
To test whether this type of capsule could allow safe and effective drug delivery, the researchers tested it in pigs, with insulin as the drug payload.
It took more than a week for the capsules to move through the entire digestive tract, and the researchers found no traces of tissue damage.
They also found that the microneedles successfully injected insulin into the lining of the stomach, small intestine, and colon, causing the animals' blood glucose levels to drop.
This reduction in blood glucose was faster and larger than the drop seen when the same amount of insulin was given by subcutaneous injection.
The study appears in the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.
7th Oct 2014, 04:33 PM #1463
Re: Health Bulletin
Back pain common among medical students in India
Medicine is considered one of the best professions in India, but doctors pay a price for their choice: they run a high risk of suffering from back pain. Studies done from various parts of the world have shown that medical students are more prone to back pain than their counterparts in other educational streams.
The plight of medical students in Mumbai and Delhi is not any different. A chain of rehabilitation clinic, Qi, recently found that medical students form a sizeable chunk of the their patient pool. "While people with sedentary jobs and homemakers form the largest chunks of our patients, we are seeing more students coming in," said Qi official Garima Anandani. Six months ago, the firm started enquiring about the stream of study and found that a majority of the student-patients were pursing medicine.
A study of low back pain among a medical school in Delhi - that was published in a medical journal called Education for Health in May 2013 — showed a prevalence of 47.5%.
The Delhi study also found an interesting correlation between lifestyle and low back pain among medical students. "Around 57% of those with pain were regular coffee drinkers. About 75% had poor posture and a majority of them (58.6) opreferred to study lying on the bed." A study from Austria among 103 medical students had shown that they were approximately 2.5 times less physically active than the 107 physical education students.
7th Oct 2014, 04:34 PM #1464
Re: Health Bulletin
Poor sleep linked to osteo-arthritis in cycle of distress
New research has confirmed that sleep disturbances are initially associated with depressive symptoms and pain but not disability. Over time, however, poor sleep was found to increase depressive symptoms and disability but not pain.
"Sleep disturbance is a common complaint among those with pain, particularly among those with osteo-arthritis (OA)," said Patricia Parmelee from the University of Alabama in the US.
The study examined the dynamics between sleep, pain, disability and depressive symptoms in patients with OA, finding complex associations between them as part of a cycle of distress.
"Our research is unique as we investigate the complex relationships among sleep, OA-related pain, disability and depressed mood simultaneously in a single study," Parmelee added.
For the study, 288 patients with knee OA provided information on sleep disturbances, pain, functional limitations and depressive symptoms for baseline analyses.
Longitudinal analyses took the baseline sleep disturbance readings and used them to predict changes in pain, depression and disability over a one year period.
Participants who reported high levels of pain had symptoms of depression exacerbated through a combination of poor sleep and pain.
The study appeared in the journal Arthritis Care and Research.
7th Oct 2014, 07:25 PM #1465
Re: Health Bulletin
Yogurt shields pregnant women against heavy metal poisoning
Yogurt containing probiotic bacteria may protect children and pregnant women against heavy metal exposure, says a study.
The researchers found a significant protective effect of the probiotic against mercury and arsenic in pregnant women.
This is important as "reduction in these compounds in the mothers could presumably decrease negative developmental effects in their foetus and newborns", according to lead researcher Gregor Reid from the Canadian Centre for Human Microbiome and Probiotics.
While the results obtained in the children studied showed benefits and lower toxin levels, the sample size and duration of treatment did not allow statistical significance.
Working with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the researchers created and distributed a special yogurt containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus bacteria and observed the outcomes against a control group.
Their lab research indicated that L. rhamnosus had a great affinity for binding toxic heavy metals.
The findings appeared in the journal mBio.
7th Oct 2014, 07:33 PM #1466
Re: Health Bulletin
Vaginal orgasm doesn't exist at all: Study
Junk words like G-spot, vaginal or clitoral orgasms from your dictionary as such stimulation does not exist at all. If we believe researchers, like male orgasm, female orgasm is the correct term and has nothing to do with vagina.
“The key to female orgasm is the female penis - the clitoris, vestibular bulbs and pars intermedia, labia minora and corpus spongiosum of the female urethra.
"In all women, orgasm is always possible if the female erectile organs are effectively stimulated,” explained study co-author and sexologist Vincenzo Puppo from Centro Italiano di Sessuologia (CIS), Italy.
The majority of women worldwide do not have orgasms during intercourse.
“As a matter of fact, female sexual dysfunctions are popular because they are based on something that does not exist - the vaginal orgasm,” he noted.
Male ejaculation does not automatically mean the end of sex for women.
“Touching and kissing can be continued almost indefinitely and non-coital sexual acts after male ejaculation can be used to produce orgasm in women,” Puppo concluded.
8th Oct 2014, 01:02 PM #1467
Re: Health Bulletin
Life after death? The man who officially died for three minutes but remembers everything
There is scientific evidence to suggest that life can continue after death, according to the largest ever medical study carried out on the subject.
A team based in the UK has spent the last four years seeking out cardiac arrest patients to analyse their experiences, and found that almost 40 per cent of survivors described having some form of "awareness" at a time when they were declared clinically dead.
Experts currently believe that the brain shuts down within 20 to 30 seconds of the heart stopping beating - and that it is not possible to be aware of anything at all once that has happened.
But scientists in the new study heard said they heard compelling evidence that patients experienced real events for up to three minutes after this had happened - and could recall them accurately once they had been resuscitated.
Dr Sam Parnia, an assistant professor at the State University of New York and a former research fellow at the University of Southampton who led the research, said that patients who described near-death experiences were only relating hallucinatory events.
One man, however, gave a "very credible" account of what was going on while doctors and nurses tried to bring him back to life - and says that he felt he was observing his resuscitation from the corner of the room.
Speaking to Telegraph about the evidence provided by a 57-year-old social worker Southampton, Dr Parnia said: "We know the brain can't function when the heart has stopped beating.
"But in this case, conscious awareness appears to have continued for up to three minutes.
"The man described everything that had happened in the room, but importantly, he heard two bleeps from a machine that makes a noise at three minute intervals. So we could time how long the experienced lasted for.
"He seemed very credible and everything that he said had happened to him had actually happened."
Dr Parnia's study involved 2,060 patients from 15 hospitals in the UK, US and Austria, and has been published in the journal Resuscitation.
Of those who survived, 46 per cent experienced a broad range of mental recollections, nine per cent had experiences compatible with traditional definitions of a near-death experience and two per cent exhibited full awareness with explicit recall of "seeing" and "hearing" events - or out-of-body experiences.
Dr Parnia said that the findings of the study as a whole suggested that "the recalled experience surrounding death now merits further genuine investigation without prejudice".
Dr Jerry Nolan, editor-in-chief of the journal which published the research, said: "The researchers are to be congratulated on the completion of a fascinating study that will open the door to more extensive research into what happens when we die."
8th Oct 2014, 10:25 PM #1468
Re: Health Bulletin
Toddlers know how not to make adults angry
Children as young as 15 months can detect anger when watching other people's social interactions and then use that emotional information to guide their own behaviour, shows new research.
Toddlers are capable of using multiple cues from emotions and vision to understand the motivations of the people around them, the findings showed.
"At 15 months of age, children are trying to understand their social world and how people will react," said lead author Betty Repacholi, a faculty researcher at the University of Washington in the US.
"In this study we found that toddlers, who are not yet speaking, can use visual and social cues to understand other people," Repacholi added.
In the experiment, 150 toddlers at 15 months of age watched as an experimenter demonstrated how to use a few different toys.
Then a second person, referred to as the "emoter", entered the room and as the experimenter repeated the demonstration, the emoter complained in an angry voice.
The children then had a chance to play with the toys, but under slightly different circumstances.
For some, the emoter left the room or turned her back so she could not see what the child was doing.
In these situations, toddlers eagerly grabbed the toy and copied the actions they had seen in the demonstration.
In other groups, the angered emoter maintained a neutral facial expression while either watching the child or reading a magazine.
Most toddlers in these groups hesitated before touching the toy, waiting about four seconds on average.
And when they finally did reach out, the children were less likely to imitate the action the experimenter had demonstrated.
The study appeared in the journal Cognitive Development.
8th Oct 2014, 10:31 PM #1469
Re: Health Bulletin
Charging phone in bedroom can make you fat
A new study has revealed that charging your phone in your bedroom could make you put on weight, as the artificial light from phone screens, street lights, laptops or television stops the body generating a hormone that combats obesity.
According to the study by the University of Granada, experiments conducted on obese rats found that increased consumption of Melatonin, which is necessary to regulate sleep patterns and is a powerful anti-inflammatory that boosts the metabolism, made them lose weight and also fought type two diabetes and scientists believe it can have the same effect on humans, the Independent reported.
Professor Ahmad Agil, who led the study, said the epidemic is primarily caused by humans' failure to adapt to modern environments, sedentary lifestyles, higher consumption of high-calorie processed food and excessive exposure to artificial lightning reducing melatonin levels.
The hormone is found in particularly high quantities in spices, herbs, tea, coffee, fruit, nuts and seeds.
The study was published in the Journal of Pineal Research.
9th Oct 2014, 03:47 PM #1470
Re: Health Bulletin
Fried food increases diabetes risk during pregnancy
A new research has demonstrated that pregnant women who consume fried food on regular basis before conceiving are likelier to suffer from gestational diabetes.
The study conducted at Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD, part of the US National Institutes of Health) Rockville, MD, USA, showed that recently frequent consumption of fried foods has been linked to a higher risk of overweight and obesity in two Mediterranean cohorts.
The authors included 21,079 singleton pregnancies from 15,027 women in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II) cohort. NHS II is an ongoing prospective cohort study of 116,671 female nurses in the USA aged 25-44 years at the start of study in 1989. The participants received a questionnaire every two years regarding disease outcomes and lifestyle behaviours, such as smoking status and medication use. Since 1991 and every four years thereafter, NHSII investigators have collected diet information, including consumption of fried foods at home and away from home, using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ).
The authors documented 847 incident GDM pregnancies during 10 years of follow-up. After adjustment for age, parity, dietary and non-dietary factors, the risk ratios for developing GDM among women who consumed total fried foods 1-3, 4-6, and 7 or more times per week, compared with those who consumed less than once per week, were 1.13, 1.31, and 2.18 respectively (thus a more-than-doubling of risk for 7 times or more per week or more compared with less than once per week).
The authors said that the potential detrimental effects of fried food consumption on GDM risk may result from the modification of foods and frying medium and generation of harmful by-products during the frying process.
The authors concluded that they observed that frequent fried food consumption was significantly and positively associated with the risk of incident GDM in a prospective cohort study and their study indicated potential benefits of limiting fried food consumption in the prevention of GDM in women of reproductive age.
The study is published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes).