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  1. #1521
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    Re: Health Bulletin

    Modern habits leading to more gum disease: Study

    Modern people have far more gum disease than our predecessors, according to a British study of skulls published Friday. The surprise findings provide further evidence that modern habits such as smoking are damaging to oral health.

    Gum disease, also known as periodontitis, is the result of a chronic inflammatory response to the build-up of dental plaque. Whilst much of the population lives with mild gum disease, factors such as tobacco smoking or medical conditions like diabetes can trigger more severe chronic periodontitis, which can lead to the loss of teeth.

    The study, published in the British Dental Journal, examined 303 skulls from a Romano-British burial ground in England, for evidence of dental disease, Xinhua reported.

    Only 5 percent of the skulls showed signs of moderate to severe gum disease, compared to today's population of which around 15-30 percent of adults have chronic progressive periodontitis.

    According to experts, the ancient people was non-smoking and likely to have had very low levels of diabetes mellitus, two factors that are known to greatly increase the risk of gum disease among modern people. Among the people who survived into adulthood, the peak age at death appears to have been in their 40s. Infectious diseases are thought to have been a common cause of death at that time.

    Francis Hughes from King's College London and lead author of the study said: "We were very struck by the finding that severe gum disease appeared to be much less common in the Roman British population than in modern humans, despite the fact that they did not use toothbrushes or visit dentists as we do today."

    Experts concluded that this study showed a major deterioration in oral health between Roman times and modern England. By underlining the probable role of smoking, especially in determining the susceptibility to progressive periodontitis among modern people, there is a real sign that the disease can be avoided.


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  2. #1522
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    Re: Health Bulletin

    Music therapy reduces depression in kids, teens

    Music therapy can reduce depression in children and adolescents with behavioural and emotional problems, according to the largest ever study of its kind.

    The researchers at Queen's University Belfast in partnership with the Northern Ireland Music Therapy Trust, found that children who received music therapy had significantly improved self-esteem and significantly reduced depression compared with those who received treatment without music therapy.

    The study also found that those who received music therapy had improved communicative and interactive skills, compared to those who received usual care options alone.

    In the study which took place between March 2011 and May 2014, 251 children and young people were involved.

    They were divided into two groups - 128 underwent the usual care options, while 123 were assigned to music therapy in addition to usual care.

    All were being treated for emotional, developmental or behavioural problems. Early findings suggest that the benefits are sustained in the long term.

    "This is the largest study ever to be carried out looking at music therapy's ability to help this very vulnerable group, and is further evidence of how Queen's University is advancing knowledge and changing lives," said Dr Valerie Holmes, Centre for Public Health, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences and co-researcher.

    "Music therapy has often been used with children and young people with particular mental health needs, but this is the first time its effectiveness has been shown by a definitive randomised controlled trial in a clinical setting," said Ciara Reilly, Chief Executive of the Northern Ireland Music Therapy Trust.

    "The findings are dramatic and underscore the need for music therapy to be made available as a mainstream treatment option," Reilly said.


  3. #1523
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    Re: Health Bulletin

    6 ஆண்டில் டெங்குவால் 60 லட்சம் பேர் பாதிப்பு - ஆண்டுக்கு ரூ.6,753 கோடி மருத்துவ செலவு: ஆய்வில் அதிர்ச்சி தகவல்

    இந்தியாவில் 6 ஆண்டுகளில் 60 லட்சம் பேர் டெங்கு காய்ச்சலால் பாதிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளனர். அரசின் பதிவில் உள்ள புள்ளி விவரங்களைவிட பல மடங்கு பாதிப்பு அதிகமாக இருக்கிறது. ஆண்டு தோறும் டெங்கு காய்ச்சலுக்கு ரூ.6,753 கோடி செலவிடப்படுகிறது என்ற அதிர்ச்சி தகவல் தெரியவந்துள்ளது.

    இந்திய மருத்துவ ஆராய்ச்சி கழகத்தின் நோய் பரப்பும் பூச்சிகள் ஆராய்ச்சி மையம் (சிஆர்எம்இ), சர்வதேச மருத்துவ நோயியல் நெட்வொர்க் (ஐஎன்சிஎல்இஎன்) மற்றும் அமெரிக்கா பல்கலைக் கழகம் இணைந்து இந்தியாவில் கொசு மற்றும் பூச்சிகளால் பரவும் வைரஸ் குறித்த ஆராய்ச்சியை நடத்தியது. குறிப்பாக டெங்கு காய்ச்சல் பாதிப்பு குறித்த ஆராய்ச்சியையும் நடத்தியது. இந்தியாவில் டெங்கு காய்ச்சல் பாதிப்பு மற்றும் இறப்பு குறித்த அரசு பதிவுகளில் உள்ள புள்ளி விவரத்தைவிட, அதிக அளவில் டெங்கு பாதிப்பு இருப்பதாக ஆராய்ச்சி முடிவுகள் தெரிவிக்கின்றன.

    டெங்குவால் 60 லட்சம் பேர் பாதிப்பு
    இந்தியாவில் 2012-ம் ஆண்டு டெங்குவால் 20,472 பேர் பாதிக்கப்பட்டு, 132 பேர் உயிரிழந்துள்ளனர். இதே போல 2013-ம் ஆண்டில் 75,454 பேர் பாதிக்கப்பட்டு, 127 பேர் உயிரிழந்து இருப்பதாக அரசின் பதிவில் பதிவாகியுள்ள புள்ளி விவரங்களில் தெரிவிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது.

    ஆனால் ஆராய்ச்சிபடி 2006 முதல் 2012-ம் ஆண்டு வரையுள்ள காலக்கட்டத்தில் இந்தியாவில் டெங்கு காய்ச்சலால் சுமார் 60 லட்சம் பேர் பாதிக்கப்பட்டு இருக்கின்றனர். அதே போல டெங்குவால் இறப்பு விகிதமும் அரசின் புள்ளி விவரத்தைவிட அதிகமாக இருப்பதாக ஆராய்ச்சி முடிவில் சொல்லப்பட்டுள்ளது.

    ஆண்டுக்கு 6,753 கோடி செலவு
    இந்த ஆராய்ச்சி முடிவுகள் தொடர்பாக, இந்திய பொது சுகாதார சங்கத்தின் தமிழக தலைவர் டாக்டர் இளங்கோ கூறியதாவது:

    இந்தியாவில் 2006 முதல் 2012-ம் ஆண்டு வரை டெங்கு காய்ச்சலுக்கு 57,78,408 பேர் பாதிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளனர். டெங்கு காய்ச்சலால் நாட்டில் பொருளாதார இழப்பு ஏற்படுகிறது. ஒவ்வொரு ஆண்டும் டெங்கு காய்ச்சலுக்கு மருத்துவ செலவாக ரூ.6,753 கோடி செலவு செய்யப்படுகிறது. பணம் கொடுத்து தனியார் மருத்துவ மனைகளில் சிகிச்சை பெற்றது, டெங்கு காய்ச்சலுக்கு அரசு செலவிட்டது மற்றும் மருந்து, மாத்திரைகள் வாங்கியது என அனைத்து செலவுகள் மொத்தம் ரூ.6,753 கோடியாகும். இந்தியா ஆண்டு தோறும் விண்வெளி ஆராய்ச்சிக்கு செலவிடும் தொகை அளவுக்கு, டெங்கு காய்ச்சலுக்கு செலவாகிறது.

    80% நோயாளிகள் பதிவு இல்லை
    தனியார் மருத்துவமனைகளில் சிகிச்சை பெறும் 80 சதவீதம் டெங்கு காய்ச்சல் நோயாளிகளின் முழு விவரங்கள் அரசின் பதிவு களுக்கு வருவதில்லை. அரசு மருத்துவமனைகளில் சிகிச்சை பெறும் 20 சதவீத டெங்கு நோயாளிகளின் புள்ளி விவரங்கள் மட்டுமே அரசிடம் இருக்கிறது. டெங்கு காய்ச்சலை கண்டுபிடிக்க மற்றும் ஆய்வு செய்வதற்கான மருத்துவ உபகரணங்கள் குறைவாக இருக்கிறது. ஒவ்வொரு இடத்திலும் டெங்கு காய்ச்சலை கண்டுபிடிக்கும் முறை மாறுபடுகிறது. இதனால் டெங்கு காய்ச்சல் பாதித்த நோயாளிகளை கண்டுபிடிப்பதில் சிக்கல் ஏற்பட்டுள்ளது. மொத்தத்தில் இந்தியாவில் 99.7 சதவீதம் டெங்கு நோயாளிகளின் விவரங்கள் அரசின் பதிவுகளுக்கு வருவதில்லை. 0.3 சதவீதம் டெங்கு நோயாளிகளின் விவரங்கள் மட்டுமே அரசின் பதிவுகளில் பதிவு செய்யப்படுகிறது.

    நோய் கண்காணிப்பு திட்டம்
    இந்தியாவில் உள்ள ஒவ்வொரு மாநிலமும் கொசு மூலம் பரவும் டெங்கு காய்ச்சல் உள்ளிட்ட நோய்களை கட்டுப்படுத்த கொள்கை முடிவை எடுக்க வேண்டும். உலக வங்கியின் நிதியுதவியுடன் தொடங்கப்பட்ட ஒருங்கிணைந்த நோய் கண்காணிப்பு திட்டத்தை வலுப்படுத்த வேண்டும். டெங்குவை அறிவிக்கப்பட்ட நோய்களின் பட்டியலில் சேர்த்து, சிகிச்சைக்கு வரும் டெங்கு காய்ச்சல் நோயாளிகள் குறித்த விவரத்தை உடனுக்குடன் அரசிடம் தெரிவிக்கும்படி தனியார் மருத்துவமனைகளுக்கு அறிவுறுத்த வேண்டும். மாநில அரசும் பொது சுகாதாரத்துறையை வலுப்படுத்த வேண்டும். டெங்கு காய்ச்சல் பாதிப்பு குறித்த விவரத்தை உடனுக்குடன் பதிவு செய்ய வேண்டும். அந்த புள்ளி விவரத்தின்படியே, டெங்கு காய்ச்சல் குறித்த விழிப்புணர்வை பொதுமக்களிடம் அரசு ஏற்படுத்த வேண்டும்.

    இவ்வாறு அவர் தெரிவித்தார்.


  4. #1524
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    Re: Health Bulletin

    Urban women in 50s prone to breast cancer

    Debunking the popular belief that the incidence of breast cancer is rising among India's younger women, doctors from Indian's premier cancer hospital in Parel say the typical patient is, more often than not, in her 50s and lives in an urban area.

    "We have conducted a 20-year analysis of breast cancer rates among the Indian population and found that while the rate of breast cancer is definitely increasing among Indian women, it is mainly among menopausal women who are in their 50s," said Tata Memorial Hospital's director Dr Rajendra Badwe, who along with colleague Dr Rajesh Dikshit, authored a study published in the Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology in August.

    While cancer occurs among younger women as well, the doctor pointed out that there was almost a tripling of cases among 50-plus women in the last two decades. "We found the breast cancer incidence had increased significantly—rising by 1.6% annually—among older women who were over 50 years of age while there was a 1% corresponding increase among younger women," said Dr Dikshit.



    Unlike in the west, cancer rates in India are relatively lower. A study by Dr Preet Dhillon for Public Health Foundation of India said the age-standardized incidence rate for breast cancer in India is 22.9 per 100,000, one-third that of western countries (66.4). But experts say rapid urbanization is changing the picture of breast cancer incidence across India.



    An urbanized state like Punjab has higher incidence of breast cancer than, say, Uttar Pradesh. States like Maharashtra, Karnataka and Gujarat are more urbanized and hence, have a higher incidence of breast cancer. "Urbanization affects breast cancer rate in three ways: The age of bearing the first child among urban women is higher, women here breast feed children for a shorter duration than in rural areas and, thirdly, an urban population is usually more overweight or obese," said Dr Badwe.

    The rural-urban divide is most telling in Barshi near Solapur, said Dr Dikshit. The women living in Barshi town have a higher incidence of breast cancer in comparison to their counterparts in Barshi village. "And, the two places are barely 30 km apart," he added.

    Doctors, however, say that all isn't dismal with respect to breast cancer, which is the most common cancer in India. "There is a rise in the awareness level, which is resulting in early detection of breast cancers. If the average size of tumour in 1975 was 6.5 cm, it is 2.5 cm now," said Dr Badwe, himself a breast cancer surgeon.


  5. #1525
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    Re: Health Bulletin

    Blood vessel grown using 2 tbsp of blood

    Two tablespoons of blood are all that is needed to grow a brand new blood vessel in just seven days. This is shown in a new study from Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sweden, and Sahlgrenska University Hospital. Just three years ago, a patient at Sahlgrenska University Hospital had received a blood vessel transplant grown from her own stem cells.

    Suchitra Sumitran-Holgersson, professor of transplantation biology at Sahlgrenska Academy, and Michael Olausson, surgeon/medical director of the Transplant Center and professor at Sahlgrenska Academy, came up with the idea, planned and carried out the procedure. Sumitran-Holgersson and Olausson have published a new study based on two other transplants which were performed in 2012 at Sahlgrenska University Hospital. The patients, two children, had the same condition as in the first case - they were missing the vein that goes from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver.

    "Once again, we used the stem cells of the patients to grow new blood vessels that would permit the organs to collaborate properly," Olausson says. This time, however, Sumitran-Holgersson, found a way to extract stem cells that did not necessitate taking them from the bone marrow. "Drilling in the bone marrow is very painful," she says. "It occurred to me that there must be a way to obtain the cells from the blood instead." The method involved taking 25 millilitre (approximately two tablespoons) of blood, the minimum quantity needed to obtain enough stem cells. Sumitran-Holgersson's idea surpassed her own expectations.

    The extraction procedure worked perfectly the very first time. "Not only that, the blood itself accelerated growth of the new vein," Sumitran-Holgersson says. "The entire process took only a week, as opposed to a month in %the first case. The blood contains substances that naturally promote growth." Olausson and Sumitran-Holgersson have treated three patients so far. Two of the three patients are doing well and have veins that are functioning as they are expected to. In the third case, the patient is still under medical surveillance and the outcome of the procedure is unc


  6. #1526
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    Re: Health Bulletin

    Two new compounds that can help decrease inflammation discovered

    A new study has discovered two compounds that could help in reducing inflammation associated with diseases such as ulcerative colitis, arthritis and multiple sclerosis.

    The compounds, dubbed OD36 and OD38, specifically appear to curtail inflammation-triggering signals from RIPK2 (serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase 2). RIPK2 is an enzyme that activates high-energy molecules to prompt the immune system to respond with inflammation.

    In this research project, investigators applied state-of-the-art genetic sequencing to learn the unique set of genes driven specifically by NOD2 proteins.

    They ultimately zeroed in on three specific NOD2-driven inflammation genes (SLC26a, MARCKSL1, and RASGRP1) that guided investigators in finding the most effective compounds.

    Derek Abbott, associate professor of pathology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, said that based on the design of OD36 and OD38, they have developed with Oncodesign fifth-generation compounds that are even more effective than the first-generation OD36 and OD38.

    The next step would be to seek a larger pharmaceutical company that could move these compounds forward into Phase 1 clinical trials in humans, he further added.

    The study is published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry.


  7. #1527
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    Re: Health Bulletin

    'Shocking' new leukaemia drug kills 90 percent of cancer in single dose

    A revolutionary leukaemia drug has given hope to patients as it kills nearly 90 per cent of their cancer in the first dose.

    Gazyva, which so powerful it can send patients into shock, comes with a whopping 42,000 dollar bill, News.com.au reported.

    Though the drug has been approved for use in Australia but not yet subsidised by the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme and has some serious side effects including increased risk of infections, including lower white blood cell counts and reduce the ability of the blood to clot, fever, cough, and muscle and joint pain.

    A study published in the New England Journal of Medicine earlier this year showed Gazyva delayed the progression of the cancer in patients using the drug in combination with an older chemotherapy by 26.7 months, 15 months longer than progression free survival in patients using standard treatment.


  8. #1528
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    Re: Health Bulletin

    How coco reverses age-related memory decline

    In a new study, scientists have discovered how dietary cocoa flavanols, the naturally occurring bioactives found in cocoa, reverse age-related memory decline in healthy older people.

    The study led by Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) scientists, provided the first direct evidence that one component of age-related memory decline in humans was caused by changes in a specific region of the brain and that such a form of memory decline could be improved by a dietary intervention.

    Previous work had shown that changes in a specific part of the brain-the dentate gyrus-were associated with age-related memory decline. To see if the dentate gyrus was the source of age-related memory decline in humans, senior author Dr. Scott A. Small and his colleagues tested whether compounds called cocoa flavanols could improve the function of this brain region and improve memory. Flavanols extracted from cocoa beans had previously been found to improve neuronal connections in the dentate gyrus of mice.

    In the CUMC study, 37 healthy volunteers, ages 50 to 69, were randomized to receive either a high-flavanol diet (900 mg of flavanols a day) or a low-flavanol diet (10 mg of flavanols a day) for three months. Brain imaging and memory tests were administered to each participant before and after the study. The brain imaging measured blood volume in the dentate gyrus, a measure of metabolism, and the memory test involved a 20-minute pattern-recognition exercise designed to evaluate a type of memory controlled by the dentate gyrus.

    The high-flavanol group also performed significantly better on the memory test. Dr. Small said that if a participant had the memory of a typical 60-year-old at the beginning of the study, after three months that person on average had the memory of a typical 30- or 40-year-old. He cautioned, however, that the findings needed to be replicated in a larger study.

    Flavanols are also found naturally in tea leaves and in certain fruits and vegetables, but the overall amounts, as well as the specific forms and mixtures, vary widely.

    The precise formulation used in the CUMC study had also been shown to improve cardiovascular health. Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston recently launched an NIH-funded study of 18,000 men and women to see whether flavanols can help prevent heart attacks and strokes.

    The researchers pointed out that the product used in the study is not the same as chocolate, and they caution against an increase in chocolate consumption in an attempt to gain this effect.

    In the study, the researchers were unable to assess whether exercise had an effect on memory or on dentate gyrus activity.

    The study is published in the advance online issue of Nature Neuroscience.


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    Re: Health Bulletin

    How body clock governs female fertility

    Treating infertility in women may soon have a new approach as researchers have now identified the biological clock that governs female fertility.

    The granulosa cells of the primary follicle that nourish and support eggs in the uterus may serve as the biological clock that monitors the onset of menopause, a study showed.

    The onset of menopause is influenced by the point at which the uterus runs out of eggs to release.

    A signalling pathway in the granulosa cells plays a key role in enabling immature eggs to survive, the researchers noted.

    "This mechanism permits the granulosa cells to decide when eggs will begin to grow and when they will die," said Kui Liu from University of Gothenburg in Sweden.

    "In that sense, they serve as a kind of biological clock that monitors the onset of menopause," Liu explained.

    The study could shed light on why some women can have successful pregnancies at the age of 50, whereas other are unable to get pregnant when they are 30.

    The discovery will point the way to interventions that stimulate the growth of eggs that have been unable to mature, the researchers stressed.


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    Re: Health Bulletin

    Sleep disturbances linked to higher Alzheimer's risk in men

    Elderly men with self-reported sleep disturbances run a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease than men without self-reported sleep disturbances, says a study.

    “We demonstrate that men with self-reported sleep disturbances run a 1.5-fold higher risk to develop Alzheimer's disease than those without reports of sleep disturbances during a 40-year follow-up period,” said lead researcher Christian Benedict from Uppsala University in Sweden.

    “The later the self-reported sleep disturbance was found the higher the risk was for developing Alzheimer's disease,” Benedict added.

    The researchers followed more than 1,000 men, who were initially 50 year old, between the years 1970 and 2010.

    The data suggest that a regular good night's sleep could support brain health in men.

    “These findings suggest that strategies aimed at improving sleep quality in late life may help reduce the risk to develop Alzheimer's disease,” Benedict pointed out.

    The researchers also pointed out that several lifestyle factors, such as exercise, can influence the brain's health.

    “Thus, it must be borne in mind that a multifaceted lifestyle approach comprising good sleep habits is essential for maintaining brain health as you age", Benedict stressed.

    The results appeared in the journal Alzheimer's & Dementia.


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