18th Dec 2014, 03:04 PM #1651
Re: Health Bulletin
Substance from broccoli can help ward off premature ageing
A team of scientists has revealed that Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) related defects can be reduced with the help of a substance found in broccoli.
Children who suffer from the disease age prematurely due to a defective protein in their cells, but scientists at Technische Universitat Munchen (TUM) have now identified another important pathological factor, like, the system responsible for removing cellular debris and for breaking down defective proteins operates at lower levels in HGPS cells than in normal cells.
Most HGPS patients carry a mutation that produces a defective form of the protein lamin A, which is referred to as progerin and the normal lamin A is a key component of the matrix surrounding the DNA in the cell nucleus and plays a role in gene expression.
By contrast, the defective form, progerin, is not functional but is nevertheless continuously synthesized. The result is that progerin accumulates in the nucleus and causes the cell to "age". Consequently, HGPS patients develop classic diseases of old age such as atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, heart attacks and strokes. The disease is therefore regarded as a possible model system for the natural aging process in cells.
Researcher Karima Djabali added that progerin is also produced in healthy cells, probably as a byproduct and a well-functioning cellular waste disposal system can break down these small quantities of progerin. The scientists found, however, 10 to 20 times more progerin in the nuclei of diseased cells, a huge backlog of debris that needs to be removed.
However, scientists found a substance in broccoli called sulforaphane that activates protein degradation in cells and then treated the HGPS cells with the substance and found that significantly less progerin accumulated within the cells. Moreover, DNA damage and nuclear deformations, other effects of the disease, were also reduced in treated cells as compared with untreated cells.
Djabali explained that of course their experiments are very basic, but every active substance and every new approach brings us a step closer to a treatment for HGPS patients. It could also help us develop anti-aging strategies in the future.
18th Dec 2014, 03:11 PM #1652
Re: Health Bulletin
Migraine may double facial paralysis risk
Migraine may double the risk of a nervous system condition that causes facial paralysis called Bell's palsy, new research says.
"This is a very new association between migraine and Bell's palsy," said study author Shuu-Jiun Wang from National Yang-Ming University in Taipei.
"It also suggests that these two conditions may share a common underlying link," the author added.
For the study, two groups of 1,36,704 people aged 18 and older, one group with migraine and one without, were followed for an average of three years.
During that time, 671 people in the migraine group and 365 of the non-migraine group were newly diagnosed with Bell's palsy.
People with migraine were twice as likely to develop Bell's palsy even after researchers accounted for other factors which could increase the risk of the conditions like high blood pressure and diabetes.
"Infection, inflammation or heart and vascular problems could be shared causes for these diseases," the author said.
The study appeared in the journal Neurology.
19th Dec 2014, 12:50 AM #1653
Re: Health Bulletin
Global TB report estimation on Multi Drug Resistant TB in India
According to Global TB Report 2013, the estimated proportion of new notified TB cases under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) in India that have Multi Drug Resistant TB (MDR-TB) is 2.2 percent (21,000 in numbers) whereas that estimated proportion of re-treatment TB cases in India that have MDR-TB is 15 percent (43,000 in numbers). No new strains that are not yet known to respond to drugs have been reported under RNTCP.
Globally, many medical research activities are ongoing in the field of drug resistant tuberculosis. India considers the outcomes of this research to evolve strategies to prevent and treat drug resistant tuberculosis. For early and rapid diagnosis of drug resistant tuberculosis, new diagnostic technologies such as Line Probe Assay (LPA) and Cartridge Based Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (CBNAAT) have been developed globally. India is using these technologies since 2012. A new drug, Bed aquiline that may be used to treat drug resistant TB developed by a foreign pharmaceutical company has completed trials for efficacy (phase II trial) and has been approved by United States Food and Drug Administration to treat drug resistant TB patients.
To understand the transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, several studies have been carried out by and are ongoing at Indian Council Medical Research, AIIMS, PD Hinduja Hospital and other medical institutions in the country. Study on Outcome of standardized treatment for patients with MDR-TB from Tamil Nadu has been conducted by National Institute for Research in TB, Chennai. Apart from these, many operational research projects are being undertaken in India, to develop operational strategies of Programmatic Management of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (PMDT).
19th Dec 2014, 07:39 PM #1654
Re: Health Bulletin
Blood groups A, B, AB at higher diabetes risk
Compared to individuals with blood type O, women with blood groups A, B and AB are at higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, a study has found.
"Our findings support a strong relationship between blood group and diabetes risk, with participants with the O blood type having a lower risk of developing Type 2 diabetes," said Guy Fagherazzi from Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health in France.
For the study, the researchers collected data from more than 80,000 women in France followed between 1990 and 2008.
The results showed that, compared to women with group O blood, women with group A were 10 percent more likely to develop Type 2 diabetes and those with group B 21 percent more likely.
The AB group was 17 percent more likely to develop Type 2 diabetes.
Compared with O- women, the highest increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes was found in B+ (35 percent increased risk), followed by AB+ (26 percent), A- (22 percent), A+ (17 percent).
"The present study shows for the first time in a large prospective cohort that specific ABO blood groups are associated with an increased Type 2 diabetes risk," Fagherazzi said.
The authors say that the reasons behind the association are currently unknown, but could be related to a number of factors.
It has been suggested that the human ABO locus might influence endothelial or inflammation markers.
ABO grouping is also associated with various molecules known to be connected to Type 2 diabetes.
The study was published in the journal Diabetologia.
19th Dec 2014, 07:39 PM #1655
Re: Health Bulletin
Tooth loss may lead to memory decline
The memory and walking speeds of older adults who have lost all of their natural teeth decline more rapidly than in those who still have some of their own teeth, finds research.
"Tooth loss could be used as an early marker of mental and physical decline in older age, particularly among 60-74 year-olds," said lead author Georgios Tsakos from University College London.
“There are many factors likely to influence this decline, such as lifestyle and psychosocial factors, which are amenable to change," Tsakos added.
The study looked at 3,166 adults aged 60 or over and compared their performance in tests of memory and walking speed.
The results showed that the people with none of their own teeth performed approximately 10 percent worse in both memory and walking speed tests than the people with teeth.
These links between older adults in England losing all natural teeth and having poorer memory and worse physical function 10 years later were more evident in adults aged 60 to 74 years than in those aged 75 and older.
"We find that common causes of tooth loss and mental and physical decline are often linked to socioeconomic status, highlighting the importance of broader social determinants such as education and wealth to improve the oral and general health of the poorest members of society,” said Tsakos.
The study was published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.
19th Dec 2014, 07:40 PM #1656
Re: Health Bulletin
Global life expectancy increases by more than six years
Life expectancy around the world increased by 6.2 years between 1990 and 2013, according to a study published by The Lancet.
Men, on average, are living 5.8 years and women have gained an additional 6.6 years, due largely to decreasing mortality rates for infectious diseases and cardiovascular problems.
The study, analysing major causes of death in 188 countries, was carried out by an international consortium of more than 700 researchers and coordinated by the University of Washington's Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation.
The median age of death globally for both sexes climbed from 65.3 years in 1990 to 71.5 years in 2013.
In the world's most developed regions, cancer mortality rates decreased 15 percent, while the rate of mortality due to cardiovascular disease fell 22 percent.
Poor countries witnessed declines in mortality due to diarrhoea, lower respiratory tract infections and neonatal health problems.
At the same time, there was a 125 percent jump in deaths due to liver cancer caused by hepatitis C, a 7 percent increase in pancreatic-cancer deaths and deaths from diabetes climbed 9 percent.
Cardiovascular accidents remained as the main cause of death around the world, while chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, known as COPD, moved into second place, up from third in 1990.
"The progress we are seeing against a variety of illnesses and injuries is good, even remarkable, but we can and must do even better," the study's lead author Christopher Murray, professor of Global Health at the University of Washington, said.
"The huge increase in collective action and funding given to the major infectious diseases such as diarrhoea, measles, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and malaria has had a real impact. However, this study shows that some major chronic diseases have been largely neglected but are rising in importance, particularly drug disorders, liver cirrhosis, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease," he said.
22nd Dec 2014, 03:39 PM #1657
Re: Health Bulletin
High blood sugar in kids with diabetes have slower brain growth
A new study has observed that high blood sugar in kids suffering from type 1 diabetes is linked to changes in brain growth.
The study supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) found that young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have slower brain growth compared to children without diabetes and suggested that continued exposure to hyperglycemia, or high blood sugars, may be detrimental to the developing brain.
Nelly Mauras, MD, Chief, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism at Nemours Children's Clinic in Jacksonville, Fla., and lead author of the study , asserted that their results showed that the potential vulnerability of young developing brains to abnormally elevated glucose levels, even when the diabetes duration had been relatively brief.
The researchers found that the brains of children with diabetes showed slower overall and regional growth of gray and white matter compared to children without diabetes. These changes were associated with higher and more variable blood sugar levels. Although there were no significant differences in cognitive function between groups at 18-months, the brain imaging results suggest that the children with T1D had differences in brain maturation compared to children without diabetes. Some of the brain regions impacted are involved in visual-spatial processing, executive functions and working memory.
22nd Dec 2014, 03:39 PM #1658
Re: Health Bulletin
Family's criticism over weight makes women gain more pounds
A new study claims that women whose loved ones criticize their weight tend to gain more pounds.
Prof. Christine Logel at the University of Waterloo led the study, said that when a person felt bad about their bodies, they often turned to loved ones-families, friends and romantic partners-for support and advice, and how they responded could have a bigger effect than we might think.
The study found that women who received a higher number of "acceptance messages" about their weight saw better weight maintenance and even weight loss than their counterparts who did not receive this positive messaging from their loved ones.
The researchers studied university-age women, a demographic often dissatisfied with personal weight. The team of social psychologists asked the women their height and weight, and how they felt about what they see on the scale. About five months later, they asked them if they had talked to their loved ones about their concerns, and if so, how they had responded. About three months after that, they tracked whether their weight and their concerns about it changed in that time.
Overall, the women in the sample gained some weight over time, which is not uncommon for young adults. But if they got the message from their loved ones that they look fine, then they maintained or even lost a bit of weight. Women who received comparatively few weight acceptance messages from their loved ones gained almost 4.5 pounds on average, whereas women who received comparatively more weight acceptance messages lost a pound.
Pressure from loved ones about weight loss was not helpful for women already concerned about it. And it actually led women who weren't originally concerned about their weight to gain some weight.
The research suggests that feeling better about themselves caused the women to be more active or eat more sensibly. Receiving unconditional acceptance might have lowered their stress, a known cause of weight gain.
The study appears in the journal Personal Relationships.
22nd Dec 2014, 03:40 PM #1659
Re: Health Bulletin
Women with hot flashes during menopause likelier to fracture hips later
A new research has revealed the association between menopausal symptoms and bone health.
The study at the University of California found that women who experience moderate to severe hot flashes and night sweats during menopause tend to have lower bone mineral density and higher rates of hip fracture than peers who do not have menopausal symptoms.
Menopause is the life stage when a woman's ovaries stop producing hormones and her menstrual periods stop and about 60 percent of women experience hot flashes, which can last for several years
Postmenopausal women face a greater risk of developing osteoporosis, a condition in which bones become structurally weak and more likely to break, than either younger women or men.
The risk for this group is higher because the menopausal transition speeds the body's normal process of bone loss and in postmenopausal women, the body tends to breaks down old bone tissue faster than it can be replaced.
Researcher Carolyn J. Crandall said that this is the first large cohort study to examine the relationship between menopausal symptoms and bone health in menopausal women.
The analysis found women who reported having moderate or severe hot flashes when they entered the study were more likely to fracture a hip during the follow-up period than women who had no menopausal symptoms.
After researchers adjusted for age, body mass index and demographic factors, they found women who had moderate to severe menopausal symptoms had lower bone mass density at the neck and spine during the follow-up period than women with no symptoms.
Crandall added that improved understanding would help clinicians advise women on how to better prevent osteoporosis and other bone conditions and women who have hot flashes and want to protect their bones may benefit from healthy lifestyle habits such as avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, exercising and getting sufficient calcium and vitamin D.
The study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.
23rd Dec 2014, 02:20 PM #1660
Re: Health Bulletin
Men, here's the sure shot way of getting rid of your beer bellies
A new study has revealed that healthy men who did twenty minutes of daily weight training had less of an increase in age-related abdominal fat compared with men who spent the same amount of time doing aerobic activities.
The study by Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) researchers found that combining weight training and aerobic activity led to the most optimal results.
Lead author Rania Mekary, a researcher in HSPH's Department of Nutrition, said that because aging is associated with sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass, relying on body weight alone is insufficient for the study of healthy aging and measuring waist circumference is a better indicator of healthy body composition among older adults, while engaging in resistance training or, ideally, combining it with aerobic exercise could help older adults lessen abdominal fat while increasing or preserving muscle mass.
The study found that those who increased the amount of time spent in weight training by 20 minutes a day had less gain in their waistline (-0.67 cm) compared with men who similarly increased the amount of time they spent on moderate-to-vigorous aerobic exercise (-0.33 cm), and yard work or stair climbing (-0.16 cm). Those who increased their sedentary behaviors, such as TV watching, had a larger gain in their waistline.
The study was published online in Obesity.