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Health Bulletin


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  1. #491
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    Re: Health Bulletin

    hi,
    good after noon ,
    most welcome
    wish you a wonderful day


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  2. #492
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    Re: Health Bulletin

    Gene that replaces old memories discovered

    Scientists have discovered a gene that helps older memories get replaced by new ones.

    The gene is critical to the process of memory extinction, the phenomenon where conditioned responses fade away as older memories are replaced with new ones, researchers said.

    Enhancing the activity of this gene, known as Tet1, might benefit people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by making it easier to replace fearful memories with more positive associations, said Li-Huei Tsai, director of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)'s Picower Institute for Learning and Memory.

    The Tet1 gene appears to control a small group of other genes necessary for memory extinction.

    "If there is a way to significantly boost the expression of these genes, then extinction learning is going to be much more active," said Tsai, senior author of the study.

    Researchers studied mice with the Tet1 gene knocked out. Tet proteins are very abundant in the brain, which made scientists suspect they might be involved in learning and memory.

    The researchers found that mice without Tet1 were perfectly able to form memories and learn new tasks. However, when the team began to study memory extinction, significant differences emerged.

    "What happens during memory extinction is not erasure of the original memory. The old trace of memory is telling the mice that this place is dangerous. But the new memory informs the mice that this place is actually safe. There are two choices of memory that are competing with each other," said Tsai.

    In another set of experiments involving spatial memory, the researchers found that mice lacking the Tet1 gene were able to learn to navigate a water maze, but were unable to extinguish the memory.

    The researchers found that Tet1 exerts its effects on memory by altering the levels of DNA methylation, a modification that controls access to genes.

    High methylation levels block the promoter regions of genes and prevent them from being turned on, while lower levels allow them to be expressed.

    Many proteins that methylate DNA have been identified, but Tet1 and other Tet proteins have the reverse effect, removing DNA methylation.

    The MIT team found that mice lacking Tet1 had much lower levels of hydroxymethylation -- an intermediate step in the removal of methylation -- in the hippocampus and the cortex, which are both key to learning and memory.

    The study was published in the journal Neuron.


  3. #493
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    Re: Health Bulletin

    Our bodies produce natural painkillers

    Researchers have uncovered groundbreaking new information about how the body responds to traumatic injury.

    Remarkably, the body develops both physical and physiological dependence on this opioid - compounds that mitigate acute pain- system, just as it does to opiate narcotic drugs.

    The scientists examined opioid function at sites of pain modulation in the spinal cord. When the opioids act at opioid receptor proteins, they 'put the brakes' on the transmission of pain signals to the brain.

    Researchers have known for a while that blocking opioid receptors can increase the intensity of acute pain -- the pain occurring immediately after injury.

    To simulate human injury, the researchers produced inflammation, or skin incision, in a mouse model, then waited several weeks for signs of pain-like behaviors to subside.

    They then administered opioid receptor blockers, effectively halting the pain-relieving actions of the opioid system. When the opioid system (which the authors use the term MORCA, for mu opioid receptor constitutive activity) was blocked, the mice reverted to a set of behaviors associated with the experience of pain.

    Surprisingly, they also experienced symptoms similar to the known effects of opioid withdrawal in the drug addict: tremor, jumping and shakiness. These results were observed even up to six and a half months after pain had seemingly resolved. The long-lasting nature of the phenomenon suggests that endogenous opioid analgesia silently continues long after an injury has healed.

    The research has been published in prestigious journal Science.


  4. #494
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    Re: Health Bulletin

    Vitamin B supplements can prevent stroke

    Vitamin B supplements may help reduce the risk of stroke, scientists have claimed.

    Researchers analysed 14 randomised clinical trials with a total of 54,913 participants. All of the studies compared B vitamin use with a placebo or a very low-dose B vitamin.

    Participants were then followed for a minimum of six months. There were 2,471 strokes throughout the studies, all of which showed some benefit of taking vitamin B.

    "Previous studies have conflicting findings regarding the use of vitamin B supplements and stroke or heart attack," said author Xu Yuming, with Zhengzhou University in Zhengzhou, China.

    "Some studies have even suggested that the supplements may increase the risk of these events," Yuming said.

    Vitamin B lowered the risk of stroke in the studies overall by seven per cent. However, taking supplements did not appear to affect the severity of strokes or risk of death from stroke.

    Folic acid, a supplemental form of folate (vitamin B9), which is often found in fortified cereals, appeared to reduce the effect of vitamin B. Researchers did not find a reduction in stroke risk for vitamin B12.

    "Based on our results, the ability of vitamin B to reduce stroke risk may be influenced by a number of other factors such as the body's absorption rate, the amount of folic acid or vitamin B12 concentration in the blood, and whether a person has kidney disease or high blood pressure," said Yuming.

    The research was published in the journal Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.


  5. #495
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    Re: Health Bulletin

    Paracetamol improves endurance during exercise

    A new study has found that paracetamol has a significant effect on exercise performance and the body's ability to cope with the thermal challenge of exercise in the heat.

    The research team have previously shown that paracetamol can improve endurance performance through a reduction in exercise-induced pain.
    This study suggests, for the first time, that paracetamol can also improve the length of time someone can exercise for in hot conditions.

    The data suggests that this is achieved by reducing the body's temperature during exercise, which subsequently improves their tolerance to exercise in the heat.

    The research gives a new insight into the effects of paracetamol on endurance exercise, and further studies hope to determine by which mechanisms this takes place.

    "Whilst we have found that paracetamol improves the time someone can exercise in the heat, and that this occurs alongside a reduced body temperature, we did not measure the specific mechanisms by which this may have occurred," Dr Lex Mauger, who led the study at The University of Kent's School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, said.

    "It is important now to try and isolate how paracetamol reduced participants' body temperature during exercise," he said.

    The study is published in the journal Experimental Physiology.


  6. #496
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    Re: Health Bulletin

    Intelligent IV line to curb med errors

    The world's first highly intelligent intravenous (IV) line will now curb medical errors. Up to 61% of all life-threatening errors during hospitalization are associated with IV drug therapy. Errors include incorrect dosage, unintentional substitution of one drug for another and co-delivery of incompatible drugs.

    Today, computerized smart systems can deliver drugs intravenously in exact volumes to hospital patients.

    But these systems cannot recognize which medications are in the tubing nor can they determine the concentration of the drug. This lack of precise information can lead to medication errors with serious consequences.

    Now, a new optical device developed by a team of electrical and computer engineering students at the University of Illinois can identify the contents of the fluid in an intravenous (IV) line in real-time, offering a promising way to improve the safety of IV drug delivery. Early data show the new intelligent IV line system can identify medications including morphine, methadone, phenobarbital, the sedative promethazine and mitoxantrone used to treat multiple sclerosis.

    The system is extremely sensitive: it can detect drugs in amounts 100 times lower than the clinically delivered drug concentrations commonly used.

    So far, the researchers have also shown their system can sense a two-drug combination, which has its own unique signature.


  7. #497
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    Re: Health Bulletin

    The Vitamin That May Fight off Depression

    A simple diet addition may help you beat the blues. Eating folate-rich foods could lower your risk of depression, according to new Finnish research.

    The scientists say folate, a B vitamin, aids in the production of hormones—like norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin—that regulate mood and increase feelings of happiness. And the vitamin won’t just help cheer you up; folate is also associated with decreased risk of Alzheimer’s, dementia, heart disease, and stroke, according to the National Institutes of Health.

    Fill up on folate with fortified foods, like spinach (half a cup boiled holds 33 percent of the average guy’s recommended daily intake), avocados (half of one holds about 15 percent), and bananas.


  8. #498
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    Re: Health Bulletin

    Carve your daily meals out of carrots

    Can we ever blame stress from keeping us from being our best? From a hectic lifestyle, inflation, poor exercise routine to wrong food choices — today’s world is as if hurtling on a roller-coaster ride of crippling issues. No wonder then that we are feeling the heat!

    Women being the “head of the kitchen” have to, therefore, deal with multiple questions on the nutritional needs during her day-to-day activities. Well, the answer to this is the horn-shaped root-vegetable called carrot. Commonly orange in colour, carrots do come in other colours as well. Consisting of a crisp texture when bought fresh, the most usually-eaten part of the carrot is its taproot, though its greens crowning the head are also consumed at times.

    Good news is that carrots are not only widely available but are also reasonably priced. Furnished with the anti-ageing properties, carrots are super-rich in beta carotene which helps producing vitamin A and in turn, prevents cancer, skin disease, cardio-vascular ailments and night blindness. So instead of selecting the best toothpaste for your child, simply opt for the salubrious carrots to aid in generating saliva and fight the tooth decay in process. Carrots containing a high soluble fibre definitely add a dash of satisfaction to one’s meal, thereby assisting to maintain his/her lipid profile perfectly.

    But are carrots good for weight-loss? There is a host of studies to suggest that carrots are not good for weight-loss as the glycemic index of a carrot is higher than its glycemic load. Nonetheless, there are a few other theories to support the statement in the affirmative as carrots offer satiety to the body. So the dilemma still persists.

    As we all know that moderation is the key towards a right balance, therefore, a healthy individual can chew on plenty of carrots in his everyday meals to enjoy its benefits.

    Here is a simple way to remember the wholesome properties of carrots:
    C — Carotene rich food
    A — Anti-ageing
    R — Reduces the risk of chronic diseases
    R — Repairs
    O — Ocular (Vision) health
    T — Tasty


  9. #499
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    Re: Health Bulletin

    How to prevent initial weight gain

    Obesity has been a long standing problem for many people but now a new method could help prevent people from getting overweight and obese.
    All participants in the study were 30-65 years of age and were recruited on the basis that they had twice participated in Vasterbotten Intervention Programme (VIP), which is carried out in Vasterbotten, Sweden, or in the Upstate Health and Wellness Study, in New York State in the US.

    The thesis shows that of all VIP-participants who were of normal weight or overweight and took part in the VHU study in 1990-2004, only about one third did not gain weight.

    One surprising result was that younger individuals of normal weight, without type-2 diabetes, and without risk factors for cardiovascular disease were those least likely to maintain weight.

    Kristina Lindvall, a dietitian and doctoral candidate at the Unit for Epidemiology and Global Health, said that this means that interventions and programs aiming at prevention of overweight and obesity may need to be broadened to also include these groups that are normally regarded as being at low risk for weight gain .

    Research interviews with VIP participants that managed to maintain their weight after weight loss showed that weight maintenance was seen as balancing act, not only to maintain weight but also to manage other factors in life.

    Four main strategies for maintaining weight were described: 'to rely on heritage,' 'to find the joy,' 'to find the routine' and "'to be in control.'
    Kristina Lindvall claims that these results indicate that it is important to tailoradvice given not only to individuals wishing to lose weight but also to those wanting to maintain their weight.


  10. #500
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    Re: Health Bulletin

    Nano-medicine for blood cancer developed

    Coinciding with the 60th birthday of Mata Amritanandamayi, the Kochi-based Amrita Centre for Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine has developed a nano-medicine for drug-resistant blood cancer.

    This is expected to dramatically improve the treatment of drug-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), when used in combination with Imatinib, the standard drug for the disease.

    In another significant invention, the 2006-founded Amrita Centre has devised a mechanism that can effectively prevent recurrence of glioma or brain tumour.

    This deadly disease affects about four out of every 100,000 people in India. The life expectancy of high-grade glioma patients is about one to two years.

    The two projects will be formally unveiled Sep 26 at Amritavarsham60, the 60th birthday celebrations of the hugging saint or Amma as she is popularly referred to by her devotees.

    CML annually affects approximately two out of every 100,000 Indians. Almost 40 per cent of these cases are resistant to Imatinib. For such patients, treatment options are extremely limited.

    "What we have done at Amrita is to take a particular 'small-molecule inhibitor' class of anti-cancer drug, currently available in the market and encapsulate it into a protein nano-capsule," said Shantikumar Nair, the centre's director.

    "This allows the drug to be absorbed directly into the cancer cells circulating in the patient's bloodstream. This has a marked increase on its efficacy in killing cancer cells. Further, the circulation lifetime of the drug in the blood is increased, which also enhances its efficacy," he added.

    The nano-encapsulated version of the drug has shown itself to be non-toxic in healthy mice in tests conducted by his department, and it has similarly demonstrated itself to be effective in tests involving blood samples of people with Imatinib-resistant CML.

    Manzoor Koyakutty, professor at the Centre, says the next step is to evaluate its efficacy in fighting CML in mice. "If it continues to remain non-toxic and effective, we can move on to clinical trials," added the expert and drug co-inventor.


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