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Nutrient Guide


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  1. #1
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    Nutrient Guide

    NUTRIENTS THEIR FUNCTIONS
    Carbohydrates are the most important nutrients used by your working muscles.
    Protein contains amino acids - the building blocks - that your body uses to build and maintain muscles, bone, skin, blood and other organs.
    Fat is the chief storage system of energy.
    Vitamins help promote and regulate bodily processes and chemical reactions.
    Minerals enable enzymes to function.
    Water enables chemical reactions to take place.

    The food that you consume provides essential chemical compounds called nutrients . Nutrients are the things in foods that our body needs to stay healthy and grow. Various nutrients are required by human body to carry out its vital activities and to sustain life. Of these nutrients, micronutrients include protein, fat and carbohydrates. Good nutrition is a term synonymous with maintenance of healthy body.

    It is necessary to strike a balance between the quantity and quality of the diet so as to sustain adequate nourishment. As per the diet - no food is fattening, it is either too much or too little. So always eat a "Healthy balanced diet" which should have proper proportions of "Protein, Carbohydrate, Fat, Vitamins and Minerals". Never go for complete fat-free-diet because Vitamin ADEK are fat soluble vitamins which are very important for bony growth of the body and development of body.

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    Re: Nutrient Guide

    Importance Of Proteins

    Much of the body's structure is made up of proteins. The typical 80 Kg. man is composed of about 50 Kg. of water, 15 Kgs.of protein, 12 Kgs. of fat, 2.5 Kgs. of minerals, 500 gms.of carbohydrates and less than 30 gms. of vitamins. Since the muscles, heart, brain, lungs etc. are made up largely of proteins which are in constant need of replacement, protein power and the importance of protein foods are obvious. Protein is the basic chemical unit of the living cell, essential for their nutrition, growth and repair, and to provide heat and energy.
    1 gram of protein yields 4 kcal. It is the body building material and as antibodies it helps the body to defend against infection. It is an essential component of the diet, especially during the growing years of infant and children, for fetal development during pregnancy and for lactating mothers. Protein foods contain all of the necessary amino acids required for proper nourishment.


    Use the following chart to help select foods that are good sources of protein:

    Food Grams of Protein
    6 oz. canned tuna 40
    4 oz. chicken breast 35
    3 oz. beef * 26
    3 oz. turkey 25
    3 oz. salmon 23
    8 oz. (1 cup) garbanzo beans 15
    8 oz. (1 cup) milk 8
    8 oz. (1 cup) yogurt 10
    4 oz. (1/2 cup) tofu 10
    4 oz. (1/2 cup) cottage cheese 14
    1 egg 6
    1 oz. cheddar cheese 87
    8 oz.(1 cup) pasta 5
    * A 3 ounce serving of beef (or chicken) is about the size of a deck of cards.




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    Re: Nutrient Guide

    Importance of Carbohydrates

    Carbohydrates contain the important vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients that are essential to our health and that help prevent heart disease and cancer. Unrefined carbohydrates are good one found in whole, natural foods, such as whole grains, legumes, rice, and starchy vegetables. They're also called complex carbohydrates, so named for their molecular structure. Besides being packed with fiber, vitamins, and minerals, good carbs take longer to digest.


    Refined carbohydrates, on the other hand, are found in packaged processed foods, such as store-bought baked goods, crackers, pasta, and white bread.

    Refined carbohydrates are made with white flour and contain little or no fiber. In fact, many products made with white flour are advertised as fortified with vitamins and minerals. But current evidence reveals that fortification with vitamins does not recreate the benefits of the natural vitamins that have been removed.

    Foods rich in Carbohydrates:


    Food Serving Size Carbohydrates
    (grams) per serving
    Bread, cereal, grains:
    Bagel 1 whole 38
    Barley, pearled & uncooked 1 cup 158
    Bread 1 slice 12-18
    Breakfast cereal, hot 1 cup 18-31
    Breakfast cereal, cold 1 ounce 18-24
    Muffins 1 whole 27
    Rice, uncooked 1 cup 41-50
    Spaghetti, cooked firm 1 cup 39
    Fruits:
    Apricot, nectar 1 cup 36
    Banana, sliced 1 cup 35
    Blueberries, raw 1 cup 20
    Dates, whole & pitted 10 61
    Figs, dried 10 122
    Grapefruit juice 1 cup 72
    Vegetables:
    Beans, dry & cooked 1 cup 31-49
    Refined beans, canned 1 cup 51
    Carrots, cooked 1 cup 16
    Corn, kernels 1 cup 34
    Jerusalem Artichoke, raw & sliced 1 cup 26
    Dairy products:
    Milk, dried nonfat 1 cup 35
    Yogurt, lowfat plain 1 cup 16
    Yogurt, nonfat 1 cup 17
    Others:
    Nuts 1 cup 45
    Cashews 1 cup 9
    Chestnuts 1 cup 76



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    Re: Nutrient Guide

    Importance of Fats

    Fat is an important part of a healthy diet. It is the most concentrated source of energy of all the food compounds. There's more and more evidence that many fats are good for us and actually reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke. They also help our sugar and insulin metabolism and therefore contribute to our goals of long-term weight loss and weight maintenance. Within our body fats are vital as they are carriers of vitamin A,D,E and K and act as lubricant to help in bowel movement. And because good fats make foods taste better, they help us enjoy the journey to a healthier lifestyle. But not all fats are created equal--there are good fats and bad fats.

    "Good" fats include monounsaturated fats, found in olive and canola oils, peanuts and other nuts, peanut butter, and avocados. Monounsaturated fats lower total and "bad" LDL cholesterol--which accumulates in and clogs artery walls--while maintaining levels of "good" HDL cholesterol, which carries cholesterol from artery walls and delivers it to the liver for disposal.

    Omega-3 fatty acids--polyunsaturated fats found in coldwater fish, canola oil, flaxseeds, walnuts, almonds, and macadamia nuts--also count as good fat. There is evidence that omega-3 oils help prevent or treat depression, arthritis, asthma, and colitis and help prevent cardiovascular deaths.

    If you're not eating fish, it is important that you eat foods with alpha-linolenic acid, a type of fat that can be converted into omega-3 fats in your body. The richest sources of alpha-linolenic acid are flaxseed oil, English walnuts, canola oil and soy oil.

    "Bad" fats include saturated fats--the heart-clogging kind found in butter, fatty red meats, and full-fat dairy products. "Very bad" fats are the manmade trans fats. Trans fats, which are created when hydrogen gas reacts with oil, are found in many packaged foods, including margarine, cookies, cakes, cake icings, doughnuts, and potato chips. Trans fats are worse than saturated fats; they are bad for our blood vessels, nervous systems, and waistline.

    High fat foods:

    Food % of Fat
    Bread, Cereals, Grains:
    Breads 2-4
    Cereals trace-2
    Pasta, plain 1-2
    Fruit trace
    Avocado 17
    Vegetables trace
    Olives 20
    Meat:
    Beef, stewed & lean only 15
    Beef, stewed & lean; fat 29
    Ground beef 19
    Roast, rib & lean only 15
    Roast, rib & lean; fat 31
    Pork sausages 31
    Poultry:
    Chicken breast, roasted without skin 3
    Turkey 5-20
    Turkey, light & dark, no skin 5
    Fish:
    Clams, crabmeat, oysters,shrimps 1-2
    Salmon, baked 6
    Salmon, canned 9
    Sardines 10
    Tuna, oil pack 8
    Tuna, water pack 2
    Cheese:
    American 32
    Blue 28
    Cheddar 32
    Cottage, creamed 4
    Cottage, lowfat 2
    Mozzarella 21
    Swiss 28
    Milk:
    Whole 3.2
    Lowfat 2
    Non-fat, skim than 0
    Other dairy products:
    Butter 81
    Others:
    Vegetable oils 100
    Margarines 80
    Mayonnaise 79
    Nuts 50-70
    Soyabeans, dry 30
    Egg yolk 33

    Fatty acids in oils or fats:


    Fat or Oil... Saturated
    Fatty
    acids(%)
    Monoun-
    saturated
    fatty acids(%)
    Polyun- saturated
    fatty acids(%)
    Kinds of fats & oils
    Canola oil 7 53 22 Monounsaturated
    Corn oil 13 24 59 Polyunsaturated
    Olive oil 14 74 9 Monounsaturated
    Palm oil 52 38 10 Saturated
    Peanut oil 17 46 32 Monounsaturated
    Safflower oil 9 12 74 Poluunsaturated
    Soyabean 15 23 51 Polyunsaturated
    Soyabean - cotton seed oil 18 29 48 Polyunsaturated
    Butter 62 30 5 Saturated
    Lard 39 45 11 Saturated *



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    Re: Nutrient Guide

    Importance of Fats (Contd)

    Food Serving Cholesterol (milligrams)
    Meat:
    Beef, stewed, lean & fat 3 ounces 87
    Beef, stewed & lean 2.2 ounces 66
    Beef, ground & lean 3 ounces 74
    Beef, ground & regular 3 ounces 76
    Beef steak, sirloin 3 ounces 77
    Bacon 3 stips 16
    Pork chop, lean 2.5 ounces 71
    Poultry:
    Chicken breast, roast 3 ounces 73
    Chicken leg, roast 1.6 ounce 3 ounces
    Turkey breast, roast 3 ounces 59
    Fish:
    Calims 3 ounces 43
    Flounder 3 ounces 59
    Oysters, raw 1 cup 120
    Salmon, canned 3 ounces 34
    Salmon, baked 3 ounces 60
    Tuna 3 ounces 48
    Tuna oil, canned 3 ounces 55
    Cheese:
    American 1 ounce 27
    Cheddar 1 ounce 30
    Cream 1 ounce 31
    Mozzarella, whole milk 1 ounce 22
    Mozzarella, part skim 1 ounce 15
    Swiss 1 ounce 26
    Milk:
    Whole 8 ounces 33
    2% 8 ounces 18
    1% 8 ounces 18
    Skim 8 ounces 10
    Other dairy products:
    Butter pat 11
    Eggs, large 1 213
    Others:
    Lard tblsp. 12



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    Re: Nutrient Guide

    Importance of fiber

    Fiber is very good for health, it can help prevent certain types of cancer such as colon and stomach cancer and can also lower your cholesterol level. It helps a lot to digestive system and stops the harmful toxins hanging around the body. People who eat more fiber are less likely to become overweight. It satisfies the appetite because of its capacity to make you "feel full."so choose fresh fruits and veggies, whole grains and oats and low fat nuts and seeds as snacks instead of high caloried snacks. Make fibre a main part of your meals. Try to have soups without straining, it may take some time for taste development. When you cut fat out of your diet, try replacing it with fiber. Fiber adds bulk to food, so you chew longer, eat more slowly, and feel full sooner.

    Sources of fiber:

    Food Amount of fiber (in gms) in a
    100g (3.5 ounce) serving
    Bread:
    Bagel 2.1
    Bran bread 8.5
    Pita bread, white 1.6
    Pita bread, whole white 7.4
    White bread 1.9
    Cereals:
    Bran cereal 35.3
    Bran flakes 18.8
    Cornflakes 2.0
    Oatmeal 10.6
    Wheat flakes 9.0
    Grains:
    Barley, pearled 15.6
    Cornmeal, whole grain 11.0
    De-germed 5.2
    Oatbran, raw 6.6
    Rice, raw & brown 3.5
    Rice, raw & white 1.0-2.8
    Rice, raw & wild 5.2
    Wheat bran 15.0
    Fruits:
    Apple, with skin 2.8
    Apricots, dried 7.8
    Figs, dried 9.3
    Kiwifruit 3.4
    Pears, raw 2.6
    Prunes, dried 7.2
    Prunes, stewed 6.6
    Raisins 5.3
    Vegetables:
    Beans:
    - Baked, vegetarian 7.7
    - Chickpeas, canned 5.4
    - Lima, cooked 7.2
    Broccoli, raw 7.7
    Brussel sprouts, cooked 2.6
    Cabbage, white & raw 2.4
    Cauliflower, raw 2.4
    Corn, sweet & cooked 3.7
    Peas with edible pods, raw 2.6
    Potatoes, white & baked, with skin 5.5
    Sweet potato, cooked 3.0
    Tomatoes, raw 1.3
    Others:
    Corn chips, toasted 4.4
    Nuts:
    - Almonds, oil-roasted 11.2
    - Coconut, raw 9.0
    - Hazelnuts, oil-roasted 6.4
    - Peanuts, dry-roasted 8.0
    - Pistachios 10.8
    Tahini 9.3
    Tofu 1.2



  7. #7
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    Re: Nutrient Guide

    Importance of Vitamins

    They are the micronutrients since they are required in small quantities, but nonetheless availability in our diet is vital.

    Vitamins

    Vitamins are organic substances present in small amounts in many foods. They are required for carrying out vital functions of the body and many of them are involved in the utilization of major nutrients like proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Although they are needed in small amounts, they are essential for the health and well being of the body.


    Fat soluble Vitamins:

    Vitamin A
    Vitamin D
    Vitamin E
    Vitamin K

    Water soluble Vitamins:

    Vitamin B
    Vitamin C


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    Re: Nutrient Guide

    Importance of Minerals

    A large number of minerals are present in the body. Some of these form part of body structural components and some others act as catalytic agents in many body reactions.

    Calcium
    Phosphorus
    Iron
    Sodium
    Potassium

    Calcium

    Calcium is an element found in bones, shells and limestone, among other materials.

    Calcium:

    helps lower blood pressure and control heartbeat
    helps regulate muscle contractions
    plays a role in blood clotting
    prevents fatal bleeding from breaks in the walls of blood vessels
    maintains cell membranes
    aids in the absorption of vitamin B12
    activates enzymes such as lipase, the fat-splitting enzyme

    Your bones furnish reserves of calcium to keep plasma constant at all times.

    100 milligrams of calcium:

    Cottage cheese -- 3/4 cup low-fat or creamed
    Broccoli -- 1 cup cooked, frozen
    Navy or pinto beans -- 1 cup cooked
    Taco -- one small
    English muffin -- 1
    Almonds -- 1/3 cup
    Figs, dried -- 4
    Frozen yogurt -- 1/2 cup

    A calcium intake of up to 2,500 milligrams is safe for healthy people.


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    Re: Nutrient Guide

    Importance of Minerals (Contd)

    Phosphorous

    Phosphorus is a mineral. It is a major component of bones and teeth and makes up part of DNA and RNA.

    Phosphorus serves as the main regulator of energy metabolism in cells, helps the body absorb glucose and transport fatty acids, and is part of the buffer system that helps control the acid-base balance of the body.

    Good Sources of Phosphorus:

    Food Amount Phosphorus (milligrams)
    All-bran cereal 8 oz. (1 cup) 792
    Pancakes 3 pancakes 430
    Chili with beans 8 oz. (1 cup) 393
    Chocolate pudding (instant) 4 oz. (1/2 cup) 379
    Pinto beans 8 oz. (1 cup) 273
    1 % milk 8 oz. (1 cup) 245
    Cinnamon raisin rolls 2 Hungry Jack rolls 234
    American cheese 1 oz. 211
    Rib-eye beef 3.5 oz. (less than 1/4 lb.) 208
    Fried shrimp 3.5 oz. (less than 1/4 lb.) 191
    Macaroni and cheese 8 oz. (1 cup) 182
    Bran flakes 8 oz. (1 cup) 174
    White cake from a mix 1 slice (1/12 of a cake) 170
    Almonds 1 oz. 150
    Oatmeal (regular, quick) 1 oz. (dry) 132
    Egg 1 large egg 90
    Cola 12 oz. 63

    Deficiencies of phosphorus are rare. Most men get at least 1,500 milligrams and women get more than 1,000 milligrams a day.


  10. #10
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    Re: Nutrient Guide

    Importance of Minerals (Contd)

    Iron

    Iron is part of haemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying component of the blood. Iron-deficient people get tired easily because their bodies are starved for oxygen. Iron is also part of myoglobin, which helps muscle cells store oxygen. Without enough iron, ATP (the fuel the body runs on) cannot be properly synthesized. As a result, some iron-deficient people become fatigued even when their hemoglobin levels are normal. Although iron is part of the antioxidant enzyme catalase, iron is not generally considered an antioxidant, because too much iron can cause oxidative damage.

    The most absorbable form of iron, called "haeme" iron, is found in oysters, meat, poultry, and fish. Non-haeme iron is also found in these foods, as well as in dried fruit, molasses, leafy green vegetables, wine, and most iron supplements. Acidic foods (such as tomato sauce) cooked in an iron pan can also be a source of dietary iron.

    A common adult dose is 100 mg per day. When iron deficiency is diagnosed, the doctor must also determine the cause. Usually it's not serious (such as normal menstrual blood loss or blood donation). Occasionally, however, iron deficiency signals ulcers or even colon cancer. Many premenopausal women become marginally iron deficient unless they supplement with iron. Even so, the 18 mg of iron present in most multiple-vitamin/mineral supplements is often adequate.


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