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Valuable Vegetables


Discussions on "Valuable Vegetables" in "Healthy and Nutritive Foods" forum.


  1. #21
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    Re: Valuable Vegetables

    Basella (Vine Spinach) – 13

    Uses - Edibility / Nutrition


    Common market product, a popular leafy and stew vegetable, and a good substitute for spinach.

    The green and purple cultivated varieties are preferable to the wild ones.
    Both the young shoots and stems are eaten.

    It is an excellent source of calcium and iron, good source of vitamins A, B, and C with a high roughage value.

    Roots are employed as Rubefacient.

    Poultice of leaves used to reduce local swelling.

    Sap is applied to acne eruptions to reduce inflammation.

    Decoction of leaves used for its mild laxative effects.

    Pulped leaves applied to boils and ulcers to hasten suppuration.

    Its juice made from leaves useful for children afflicted with catarrh.

    Leaf-juice, mixed with butter, is soothing and cooling when applied to burns and scalds.

    In India, it used in hemorrhagic diseases as tonic and also used for burns and pruritic skin lesions.

    In Orissa, India, paste of root in rice water taken in the morning on an empty stomach for a month to cure irregular periods.

    Mucilaginous liquid obtained from the leaves and tender stalks used for habitual headaches.

    In Ayurveda, it is used for hemorrhages, skin diseases, sexual weakness, and ulcers and as laxative in children.

    Leaves applied on the head for half an hour before bathing to help bring about a good refreshing sleep.

    Leaf juice mixed with butter applied to burns and scalds for a soothing and cooling effect.

    Leaves and stems have been used as anticancer for melanoma, leukemia, and oral cancer.

    Roots and leaves used for the removal of after birth, stomach pains, and increase milk production.

    Used orally for anal prolapse and hernia.

    In Nigeria, use for fertility enhancement in women.

    In Nigeria, leaves used for hypertension and for malaria.

    In Nepal, leaf juice is used to treat dysentery, catarrh, and applied externally to boils.

    In Thai traditional medicine, the mucilage is used as application for bruises, ringworm, and labouring. Stem and leaves used as mild laxative, diuretic and antipyretic.

    In Antilles leaves considered good maturative as cataplasm.


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  2. #22
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    Re: Valuable Vegetables

    Basella (Vine Spinach) – 14

    Others


    Cosmetic:

    Fruit used by women as rouge for cheeks and lips; also as a dye.

    Dye
    :

    With the anthocyanin content, it makes for a natural food colorant. Fruit provides a dark violet colour as food colorant.

    Veterinary
    :

    Ground leaves rubbed on the human hand to introduce the preparation into the animal vagina every morning for the treatment of sterility.

    Pharmaceuticals
    :

    Plant mucilage has been proposed for applications in medicine and cosmetics. The mucilage has also been proposed as thickener, water-retention agent, gelling agent, suspending agent and film former.


  3. #23
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    Re: Valuable Vegetables

    Basella (Vine Spinach) – 15

    Studies


    Anthocyanins
    / Natural Food Colourant -

    Study of pigment extracted from fruits of spinach vine (B. rubra) showed good stability with a potential as a natural food colour.

    Antidiabetic / Antioxidant
    :

    Study evaluated the action of B. rubra against streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Results showed effective reduction of oxidative stress induced by streptozotocin and potential reduction in blood sugar level.

    Antifungal
    :

    Study yielded two antifungal peptides with potent activity against Botrytis cinerea, Mycosphaerella arachidicola and Fusarium oxysporum.

    Antihyperglycemic / Antioxidant:


    Study evaluated an aqueous extract of B. rubra for antihyperglycemic activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Phytochemical screening showed a rich source of phytonutrients, including enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants. Results concluded the aqueous extract exhibited significant antihyperglycemic activity.

    Antimicrobial
    :

    A study of the aqueous, ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of the leaves of Basella rubra exhibited antimicrobial activity against all test organisms except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The ethanolic extract (An ethanolic extract is the material (compound(s)) that is/are obtained from an object (plant matter, coral samples, sponges, and aqueous mixtures, etc) by extracting that item with ethanol). showed maximum effect against E coli. Further studies are needed to isolate the active compound responsible for the antimicrobial effect.

    Antimicrobial:


    Study evaluated various extracts of leaves and stems for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Methanol and aqueous extracts of stems showed maximum activity against S. typhi and P. vulgaris. Ethanol extracts of leaves and stems showed highest inhibition of B. subtilis and S. typhi. Antifungal activity was shown against A. niger, C. albicans and R. stolonifers.

    Antiulcer Activity / Antioxidant
    :

    Study evaluated the anti-ulcer activity of an aqueous extract of B. rubra leaves on ethanol and pylorus ligated-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Results showed significant and dose-dependent anti-ulcer activity and present a potential use in the treatment of gastric ulcers.

    Dyestuff / Microbiological Stain:


    Study showed the anthocyanin extracted from Basella rubra berries produced a stain comparable with synthetic stains like crystal violet and safranin, and can be used as an alternative microbiological stain.

    Fruit / Betacyanin / Antioxidant
    :

    Betacyanin extracted from the B alba fruit exhibited excellent antioxidant activity, beneficial in scavenging free radicals.

    Hematologic Effects / Amylase Activity
    :

    Study evaluated various extracts for hematologic parameters on Swiss mice and amylase activity on Wistar rats. Results showed an increase in the haematological parameters (RBC, WBC, Hb, and PCV). There was also an increase in amylase content. Results suggest potential use to prevent various complications in diabetes.

    Hypoglycaemic
    :

    A study of STZ-induced diabetic rats fed with Basella rubra showed the leaf pulp of B. rubra possesses a strong hypoglycaemic effect.

    Volatile
    Flavor Components:

    Study identified volatile flavor components. The major components from the volatile oil were: 1-methoxypropane, (Z)-3-hexen-l-ol, 3-methoxyphenyl acetate, acetophenone, 4-vinylguaiacol, isophytol, and phytol.


  4. #24
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    Re: Valuable Vegetables

    Basella (Vine Spinach) – 16

    Identification

    Genus - Basella
    Species - Alba
    Variety - Cultivar
    Common names -Ceylon spinach, Basella, Malabar spinach, Pasali, Pu, Choi and vine spinach
    Family BASELLACEAE

    Life cycle


    Life form – Terrestrial,
    Life cycle - Annual, Perennial
    Life span - Annual
    Stature - Various Growth form
    Growth habit – Various, Overall height, overall spread

    Climate


    Sunshine Full sun to partial shade Water, Optimal soil texture, slightly acidic.

    Garden


    Suitable for gardens, Basella Alba grows best in full sun to partial shade. Basella Alba is known as Pasali in Indian and Pu tin Choi in Chinese.

    Special qualities


    It tolerates drought, but not high humidity and seaside conditions.

    Not an Insect resistant and a Disease resistant.

    It attracts butterflies but not hummingbirds.

    No autumn foliage and no Colourful berries.

    Herbal medicine


    There are many nutritional properties of merit in Basella Alba; for example vitamin A and vitamin C can both be found. Basella (sometimes called Malabar spinach, vine spinach and Ceylon spinach) is most frequently used fresh.


  5. #25
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    Re: Valuable Vegetables

    Basella (Vine Spinach) – 17

    Horticulture


    Horticulture notes - The optimal planting season is from April to June. It requires warm days for good production. The best harvesting period is continuous. Basella Alba is typically propagated by seed.

    Malabar Spinach (Basella Rubra) -

    Edible leaves grown from Malabar Spinach seeds can be used throughout summer and will flourish in heat and humidity. Young leaves of this herb plant can be cooked and added to recipes and fresh leaves make a great salad. Climbing to 10 feet or more, Malabar Spinach is a lovely vine for trellises and arbors. It is also commonly referred to as Climbing Spinach Vine, Red Vine Spinach or Creeping Spinach. The Malabar Spinach herb is one of the very few garden herbs that is a vining plant.

    How to Grow Malabar Climbing Spinach:


    Once frost has passed, plant the Malabar Spinach seeds directly in the herb garden. Some gardeners recommend scarifying the herb seeds to improve germination. Cover the Basella Rubra seeds with 1/4 inch of soil and keep the soil adequately moist.

    Red-stemmed and pretty in flower, red Malabar spinach is a fast-growing vine that has both ornamental and culinary qualities. Red Vine Spinach requires a trellis or other support for the twining vine.

    A native of India, Malabar Spinach is a fully evergreen tender perennial herb with densely twining, rambling stems that can become thick and often require management to keep them from overtaking supports. Grow these herb seeds as a perennial in frost free zones and as an annual herb in colder zones.


  6. #26
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    Re: Valuable Vegetables

    Basella (Vine Spinach) – 18

    Herb Specifications


    Herb Specifications -

    Season: Perennial

    Height: 120 inches

    Bloom Season: Mid-summer

    Bloom Colour: Purple & White

    Environment: Full sun to partial shade

    Soil Type: Prefers moist, fertile soils, high in organic matter, pH 6.5 to 6.8

    Planting Directions -

    Temperature: 65 - 75F

    Average Germ Time: 14 - 21 days, scarify seed to hasten germination

    Light Required: Yes

    Depth: Plant seeds 1/4 inch deep

    Sowing Rate: 1 -2 seeds per plant

    Moisture: Keep seeds moist until germination

    Plant Spacing: 9 - 12 inches


  7. #27
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    Re: Valuable Vegetables

    Basella (Vine Spinach) –19


    Basella belongs to the Basellaceae family and has two chief cultivars, Basella rubra with purplish-stem and deep-green leaves with pink veins, and Basella alba, which features green-stems and deep-green leaves. It is native to south Asia, probably originated in the monsoon fed tropical regions of Malabar Coast of India and Sri Lanka.

    Basella commonly found in the home gardens of many south Asian families, it is gaining popularity in some of the tropical and temperate climates of America, Australia and Europe for its succulent, nutritious greens, and tender stems.

    Basella is a perennial vine and grown as annual or biennial pot-herb. It prefers hot humid climate and moist, fertile, well-drained soil to flourish. Although its seeds can be sown directly for planting, usually thick cuttings about the length of 20 cm preferred for easy propagation and fast growth. Being a vine, the plant requires trellising for its creeping at a faster rate. It bears white or white-pink colour tiny flowers depending upon the species and deep-purple to black colour berries.

    Basella alba bears thick, fleshy, broad, oval to heart-shaped leaves all along its vine length. Basella rubra features pink or purplish stems and pink colour veins in the leaves. In either case, leaves and terminal, tender, 8-12 inches stems are ready for harvesting about 35 to 45 days after planting (about 50 days after seeding).


  8. #28
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    Re: Valuable Vegetables

    Basella (Vine Spinach) – 20

    The Nutritional and Therapeutic value


    Basella is very low in calories and fats (100 g of raw leaves provide just 19 calories). Nonetheless, it contains an incredibly good amount of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants.

    The leaves and stem of Basella are incredibly rich sources of vitamin A. 100 g fresh leaves provide 8000 IU or 267% of recommended daily allowance (RDA) of this vitamin. Vitamin-A is required for maintaining healthy mucus membranes and skin and is essential for good eye-sight.

    Consumption of natural vegetables and fruits rich in vitamin-A, and flavonoids has been thought to offer protection from the lung and oral cavity cancers.

    Fresh leaves, particularly of Basella rubra, are rich sources of several vital carotenoid pigment anti-oxidants such as -carotene, lutein, zea-xanthin. Together, these compounds help act as protective scavengers against oxygen-derived free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that play a healing role in aging and various disease processes.

    Its thick, fleshy leaves are a good source of non-starch polysaccharide, mucilage. In addition to regular fiber (roughage), found in the stem and leaves, mucilage helps in digestion, reduction in cholesterol absorption and prevents bowel movement problems.

    Like in spinach, Basella too is an excellent source of Iron. 100 g fresh leaves contain about 1.20 mg or 15% of daily intake of iron. Iron is an important trace element required by the human body for red blood cell (RBC’s) production.

    Additionally, this element acts as a co-factor for oxidation-reduction enzyme, cytochrome-oxidase, during the cellular metabolism.
    Basella has more vitamin C content than English spinach. 100 g of fresh greens contains 102 mg or 102% of daily recommended levels of vitamin C. Vitamin-C is a powerful antioxidant, which helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful oxygen-free radicals.


  9. #29
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    Re: Valuable Vegetables

    Basella (Vine Spinach) – 21

    The Nutritional and Therapeutic value – 1


    This green leafy vegetable also contains good amounts of many B-complex vitamins such as folate, vitamin-B6 (pyridoxine), and riboflavin. 100 g fresh leaves provide 140 g or 35% of folates.

    This vitamin is one of the essential compounds for DNA production and growth. Folate deficiency in during very early stages of pregnancy might results in the neural tube defects in the new-born baby. Anticipating and pregnant women are therefore, advised to include a lot of fresh greens in their diet to help prevent neural tube defects in the offspring.

    Further, Basella leaves are very rich sources of minerals like potassium (11% of RDA/100 g), manganese (32% of RDA/100 g), calcium, magnesium and copper. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure.

    Manganese and copper are used by the body as a co-factor for the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase.

    Similar way to spinach, regular consumption of Basella in the diet helps prevent osteoporosis (weakness of bones), iron-deficiency anaemia.

    Besides, it is believed to protect the body from cardiovascular diseases and cancers of colon.


  10. #30
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    Re: Valuable Vegetables

    Basella (Vine Spinach) – 22

    The precautions of eating Basella

    Phytates and dietary fiber present in the leaves of Basella may interfere with the bio-availability of iron, calcium and magnesium.

    Like in spinach, Basella contains oxalic acid, a naturally-occurring substance found in some vegetables, which may crystallize as oxalate stones in the urinary tract in some people.

    People with known oxalate urinary tract stones are advised to avoid eating them. Adequate intake of water is therefore advised to maintain normal urine output.


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