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Female infertility?


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  1. #1
    sumi's Avatar
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    Female infertility?

    What are all the causes of female infertility, its type and solution? Can anyone explain it in details

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  2. #2
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    Infertility is a condition of the reproductive system that impairs the ability to achieve pregnancy.

    You can confirm your infertility, with inability to conceive a child after regular intercourse for at least 1 year. Infertility affects men and women equally.

    Causes of infertility include a wide range of physical as well as emotional factors.

    Most women have no obvious signs of infertility until they try to become pregnant and are not successful after one year. Infertility may sometimes be signaled by heavy, irregular or absent menstrual periods or associated with conditions that cause pain during menstruation or intercourse. Other signs that may point to fertility problems include obesity, facial hair and fluid that leaks from the breasts.

    Infertility problem may occur by various reasons. The most common cause of female infertility include ovulation disorders, polycystic ovarian syndrome, fallopian tube damage or blockage, endometriosis, ovarian cysts, fibroids, pelvic infection and early menopause. It may also be caused by sexually transmitted diseases, poor nutrition, hormone imbalance, tumor, uterine factors and egg quality.

    Chitra Kumar

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    Causes of Female Infertility

    Ovulation disorders
    Ovulation problems result when one part of the system that controls reproductive function malfunctions. The failure to ovulate is the most common cause of female infertility. Without ovulation, eggs are not available to be fertilized. Ovulation problems can be caused by various things such as excessive weight loss, stress, thyroid problems or slight irregularities in hormone imbalances. Disruption in the part of the brain that regulates ovulation (hypothalamic-pituitary axis) can cause deficiencies in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Signs of problems with ovulation include irregular menstrual periods or no periods.

    Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)
    Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a condition characterised by the presence of many minute cysts in the ovaries which is caused by excess production of hormone called androgen. This will prevent the follicles of the ovaries from producing a mature egg. Without egg production, the follicles swell with fluid and form into cysts. Every time an egg is trapped within the follicle, another cyst forms, so the ovary swells, sometimes reaching the size of a grapefruit. PCOS can be diagnosed through a series of blood tests and some symptoms of this condition include weight gain, acne, irregular or absent periods.

    Fallopian tube damage or blockage
    This condition usually results from inflammation of the fallopian tube (salpingitis). If they are blocked, the egg cannot move from the ovary to the uterus. This condition can happen as a result of pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, pelvis surgery, ruptured appendix or mislocated (ectopic) pregnancy. Structural disorders, like birth defects of the uterus and fallopian tubes, fibroids in the uterus, and bands of scar tissue can also block the fallopian tubes.

    Endometriosis
    This is a condition when the tissue that makes up the lining of the uterus (endometrium) grows into growths or lesions outside of the uterus usually on the ovaries or the lining of the abdomen near the uterus and fallopian tubes. In sync with the menstrual cycle, this tissue builds up, breaks down and sheds each month; but it has no way of leaving the body. As a result it causes internal bleeding, breakdown of blood which can lead to scarring and inflammation.

    Pelvic pain and infertility are common in women with endometriosis. It can be detected during laparoscopy. If you experience pain while having sex, have very painful menstrual cramps, or experience heavy bleeding during your period or unusual spotting, you may have endometriosis.

    Ovarian Cysts (Endometriomas)
    Ovarian cysts may indicate advanced endometriosis and often is associated with reduced fertility. An ovarian cyst is a small fluid-filled sac that grows in the ovary. Endometriomas can be treated with surgery.

    Uterine Fibroids
    Uterine fibroids or leiomymomas are benign tumors usually located on the outside surface or within the muscular wall of the uterus. They are not associated with the reproductive system but may cause infertility by interfering with the contour of the uterine cavity, blocking the fallopian tubes. It can also interfere with embryo implantation or fetal growth. Though the causes of these tumors are unknown, evidence suggest that estrogen and progesterone contribute to the growth of fibroids. It is most often diagnosed in women between the ages of 30 and 40. Common symptoms of fibroids is pelvic pressure, along with irregular bleeding and the effective treatment option is hysterectomy.

    Premature Ovarian Failure (POF) or Early Menopause
    Early menopause is the absence of menstruation and the early depletion of ovarian follicles before age 40. Though the cause is often unknown, the condition is associated with autoimmune disease, pelvic surgery, tobacco smoking, genetic factors, radiation or chemotherapy. Treatment option for POF is In Vitro Fertilization (IVF).

    Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
    PID is an infection of the pelvis or organs of the reproductive tract, including the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, the cervix or the uterus. It can lead to blocked or damaged fallopian tubes and is usually caused by sexually transmitted diseases, miscarriages, abortions, childbirth, or an intrauterine device.

    Age is also a risk factor of infertility. A woman's peak fertility occurs in her early 20s. The ability for ovaries to produce eggs declines with age, especially after age 35. As a woman ages beyond 35 (and particularly after age 40), the likelihood of conceiving diminishes to less than 10% per month. The risk of miscarriage also increases with a woman's age. Tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, extremes in body mass either too high or too low are all risk factors of infertility.

    Chitra Kumar

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    Diagnosis

    Infertility is usually diagnosed through medical interviews and physical examinations of both partners. A fertility specialist usually an obstetrician-gynecologist may analyse the health history, menstrual cycle, and sexual habits.

    The basal body temperature (BBT) is recorded each morning over several months using a special thermometer to find any ovulatory disorders. A blood test is performed to determine the levels of various hormones, such as luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin (PRL), estradiol and progesterone which aid greatly in determining the cause of infertility.

    The doctor will perform several specific fertility tests to evaluate the entire reproductive system and these may include :

    Hysterosalpingography (HSG) : This is an imaging study of the uterus and fallopian tubes. A radio opaque dye is injected through the cervix and the outline of the lining of the uterus is examined to confirm that the tubes are normal and open. The X-ray image can help to diagnose fibroid tumors, an unusually shaped uterus, scar tissue or blockages in the fallopian tubes. Hysterosalpingography is usually performed before ovulation so the dye does not disrupt an egg or developing embryo.

    Hysteroscopy : In this method, a thin telescope called hysteroscope is passed through the cervix into the uterus to look inside directly to detect the presence of endometriosis, fibroids, polyps, pelvic scar tissue, and blockage at the ends of the fallopian tubes.

    Laparoscopy : This is a surgical procedure performed under general anesthesia. A small incision is made beneath the navel and a laparoscope which is an illuminated, fiber-optic telescope is inserted through the abdominal cavity to examine the fallopian tubes, ovaries and uterus. A small amount of gas (usually carbon dioxide) is inserted to create space for entry of the laparoscope. At the end of the procedure, the gas and laparoscope are drawn out and the incision is closed. Laparoscopy may be done to visualise the abdominal and pelvic cavity, to see the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries, to detect pelvic adhesions, scarring, endometriosis or other relevant pathology.

    Post-Coital Test (PCT) : This test is to evaluate the cervical mucus and its interaction with the sperm. It may be done the day of ovulation and several hours after intercourse. In PCT a small amount of cervical mucus is removed and examined under a microscope.

    Endometrial Biopsy : It is performed to check if the endometrium (tissue lining the inside of the uterus) can support implantation and growth of a fertilized egg. The test is usually done three days before the period starts. In endometrial biopsy, a sample of endometrium is removed and studied under a microscope. Problems with the endometrium are called luteal phase defect.

    Clomiphene Citrate Challenge Test (CCCT) : This test is usually performed in women older than 35 years to evaluate the ability to become pregnant on the basis of the number and quality of remaining eggs.

    Pelvic exam : This is performed to feel the uterus for detectable masses and to view the cervix.

    Ultrasound scan : This is the standard imaging technique which uses sound waves to produce an image of the organs. It is done to detect uterine fibroids, endometrial polyps, ovarian cysts, and other abnormalities in the pelvis.

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) : This is another imaging procedure similar to an x-ray that uses magnetic waves to create images of the internal organs.

    Chitra Kumar

  5. #5
    nandy is offline Newbie
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    Well Explained. Can you post for male infertility also?


  6. #6
    gorgiaa is offline Newbie
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    Hello,


    In order for you to become pregnant, each of these factors is essential:

    • You need to ovulate. Achieving pregnancy requires that you're having regular menstrual cycles during which an egg is released, a process known as ovulation. Your doctor can help evaluate your menstrual cycles and confirm ovulation.
    • Your partner needs sperm. For most couples, this isn't a problem unless your partner has a history of illness or surgery. Your doctor can run some simple tests to evaluate the health of your partner's sperm.
    • You need to have regular intercourse. You need to have regular sexual intercourse during your fertile time. Your doctor may be able to help you better understand when you're most fertile during your cycle.



    For pregnancy to occur, every part of the complex human reproduction process — from the ovary's release of a mature egg to the fertilization of the egg to the fertilized egg's implantation and growth in the uterus — has to take place just right. In women, a number of factors can disrupt this process at any stage. Female infertility is caused by one or more of these factors.

    Ovulation disorders
    Ovulation disorders account for infertility in 25 percent of infertile couples. These can be caused by flaws in the regulation of reproductive hormones by the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland, or by problems in the ovary itself. You have an ovulation disorder if you ovulate infrequently or not at all.

    * Abnormal FSH and LH secretion.

    * Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    * Premature ovarian failure.

    Damage to fallopian tubes (tubal infertility)
    When fallopian tubes become damaged or blocked, they keep sperm from getting to the egg or close off the passage of the fertilized egg into the uterus. Causes of fallopian tube damage or blockage can include:

    * Inflammation of the fallopian tubes (salpingitis) due to chlamydia or gonorrhea
    * Previous ectopic pregnancy, in which a fertilized egg becomes implanted and starts to develop in a fallopian tube instead of in the uterus
    * Previous surgery in the abdomen or pelvis

    Endometriosis


    Cervical narrowing or blockage


    Uterine causes


    Unexplained infertility
    In some instances, a cause for infertility is never found. It's possible that combinations of minor factors in both partners underlie these unexplained fertility problems. The good news is that couples with unexplained infertility have the highest rates of spontaneous pregnancy of all infertile couples.

    good luck!!




  7. #7
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    Well explained informations. Can anyone of you please explain it cost wise in tamilnadu. it will be useful to compare prices


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