Recurrent miscarriage is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses. Also known as recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and habitual abortion, it can have severe effect on emotional state of mother. Recurrent pregnancy loss affects about 0.34 percent pregnant women and usually occurs before 20 weeks of gestation.
Some of the causes of recurrent miscarriages include:

  • Genetic abnormalities in embryo increases risk of recurrent miscarriage by 3% to 5%. Chromosomal abnormalities that are passed from parents to child can abort pregnancy. Sometimes embryo contains wrong number of chromosomes or they are not arranged properly, this results in recurrent miscarriage.
  • On an average hormonal imbalance plays key role in 20 percent of recurrent miscarriage. Inadequate production of progesterone (luteal phase defect) and high level of luteinizing hormone can lead to recurrent miscarriage. Therefore, the women who suffer from hormonal disorders such as Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) needs to take extra care of themselves during pregnancy.
  • Structural abnormalities can also lead to recurrent pregnancy loss. At times size and shape of uterus can also lead to structural abnormalities. Women who have division in uterus or who have scarred uterus are more likely to have recurrent miscarriage. Structured abnormalities increase the risk of recurrent miscarriage by 2 percent.
  • Blood clotting disorder (thrombophilia) is seen to be underline cause in 15 percent of recurrent miscarriage cases. Some women with blood clotting disorder may experience several pregnancy complications while the others can go through one or more pregnancy without any complications. This disorder blocks blood flow to placenta thus causing foetus death. Such disorders are mainly caused due to anticardiolipin antibodies and antiphospholipid antibodies.
  • Weak cervix during second trimester of pregnancy can lead to recurrent pregnancy loss.
  • Endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism also increase risk of recurrent miscarriage.
  • Undiagnosed and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus can cause recurrent miscarriage.
  • Women’s lifestyle greatly influences risk of miscarriage. Pregnant women must avoid exposure to toxins such as smoking alcohol and drugs.
  • Another possible cause of recurrent miscarriage is immunological factors such as autoimmune and alloimmune. In case of autoimmunity the antibodies against self are developed, they destroy cellular or sub-cellular components of body. In addition, imbalance in alloimmune factors also contributes to recurrent miscarriage.
  • Thyroid disorder is also considered to increase risk of recurrent miscarriage.


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