ABO incompatibility in new born baby

there are three main blood types, including types A, B, and O. Since babies inherit their blood type from each parent, it is possible for a mother and baby to have different blood types. For example, a mother who is type O and a father who is type A could have a baby who is type A.

With an ABO incompatibility, a mother makes antibodies against her baby's blood type. It doesn't happen if the mother and baby have the same blood type or if the baby is type O, since in that case, there is usually nothing to make antibodies against.

These antibodies, if the mother is type O, can cross the placenta and can break down the baby's red blood cells after she is born, leading to jaundice and anemia. This condition is called Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn or erythroblastosis fetalis, and it can also be caused by having an Rh incompatibility between a baby and mother.

If a mother is type A or B and the baby has a different blood type other than type O, she can still make antibodies against the baby's red blood cells. These antibodies are too large to cross the placenta though, and so don't usually lead to any problems.

Although many children with an ABO incompatibility do not need any treatment at all, some do require extensive phototherapy if the baby is very jaundiced. This is usually continued until the mother's antibodies are cleared from the baby's body, which happens on its own after a few days.

An ABO incompatibility that leads to jaundice, anemia, and the need for transfusions can definitely happen if the mother is type O and the baby is either type A or B.

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