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Immunisation Schedule


Discussions on "Immunisation Schedule" in "Newborn and Infants" forum.


  1. #1
    deepa bala's Avatar
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    Immunisation Schedule

    Immunization is a form of preventive medicine.It prepares the body to fight against infection.Its aim is to protect individuals and communities from infectious diseases.


    What is immunization


    Immunization is a form of preventive medicine. Its aim is to protect individuals and communities from infectious diseases. Immunization operates like an early warning system. It prepares the body to fight against infection.



    How does immunization work


    Immunization operates on the premise that once you have had a disease, you are unlikely to contract it again.


    Through injections, oral drops or scratches on the skin, the body is exposed to weakened or dead disease-producing microorganisms or to the toxins they produce. This will cause the individual to develop the same antibodies and antitoxins that would have been developed if the person had actually contracted the disease, in order to fight the disease.


    Once the body has been exposed to an infection, the immune system will "recognize" if the disease were to recur, and produce antibodies or antitoxins to destroy the infection. The body has to be exposed to infection once for the immune system to recognize it. This is done through immunization.

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    Re: Immunisation Schedule

    Age Vaccines Note
    Birth BCG
    OPV zero
    Hepatitis B -1
    6 weeks OPV-1 + IPV-1 / OPV -1 OPV alone if IPV cannot be given
    DTPw-1 / DTPa -1
    Hepatitis B -2
    Hib -1
    10 weeks OPV-2 + IPV-2 / OPV-2 OPV alone if IPV cannot be given
    DTPw-2 / DTPa -2
    Hib -2
    14 weeks OPV-3 + IPV-3 / OPV -3 OPV alone if IPV cannot be given
    DTPw-3 / DTPa -3
    Hepatitis B -3 Third dose of Hepatitis B can be given at 6 months of age
    Hib -3
    9 months Measles
    15-18 months OPV-4 + IPV-B1 / OPV -4 OPV alone if IPV cannot be given
    DTPw booster -1 or DTPa booster -1
    Hib booster
    MMR -1
    2 years Typhoid Revaccination every 3-4 years
    5 years OPV -5
    DTPw booster -2 or DTPa booster -2
    MMR -2 The second dose of MMR vaccine can be given at any time 8 weeks after the first dose
    10 years Tdap
    HPV Only girls, three doses at 0, 1-2 and 6 months

    Vaccines that can be given after discussion with parents

    More than 6 weeks Pneumococcal conjugate 3 primary doses at 6, 10, and 14 weeks, followed by a booster at 15-18 months
    More than 6 weeks Rotaviral vaccines (2/3 doses (depending on brand) at 4-8 weeks interval
    After 15 months Varicella Age less than 13 years: one dose
    Age more than 13 years: 2 doses at 4-8 weeks interval
    After 18 months Hepatitis A 2 doses at 6-12 months interval



  3. #3
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    Re: Immunisation Schedule

    The IAP endorses the continued use of whole cell pertussis vaccine because of its proven efficacy and safety. Acellular pertussis vaccines may undoubtedly have fewer side-effects (like fever, local reactions at injection site and irritability), but this minor advantage does not justify the inordinate cost involved in the routine use of this vaccine.

    If the mother is known to be HBsAg negative, HB vaccine can be given along with DTP at 6, 10, 14 weeks/ 6 months. If the mother's HBsAg status is not known, it is advisable to start vaccination soon after birth to prevent perinatal transmission of the disease. If the mother is HBsAg positive (and especially HBeAg positive), the baby should be given Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (HBIG) within 24 hours of birth, along with HB vaccine.

    Varicella, Hepatitis A and Pneumococcal Conjugate vaccines should be offered only after one to one discussion with parents. Also refer to the individual vaccines notes for recommendations.

    Combination vaccines can be used to decrease the number of pricks being given to the baby and to decrease the number of clinic visits. The manufacturer's instructions should be followed strictly whenever "mixing" vaccines in the same syringe prior to injection.

    At present, the only typhoid vaccine available in our country is the Vi polysaccharide vaccine. Revaccination may be carried out every 3- 4 years.

    Under special circumstances (e.g. epidemics), measles vaccine may be given earlier than 9 months followed by MMR at 12-15 months.

    During pregnancy, the interval between the two doses of TT should be at least one month.

    We should continue to use OPV till we achieve polio eradication in India. IPV can be used additionally for individual protection.

    OPV must be given to children less than 5 years of age at the time of each supplementary immunisation activity.

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    Re: Immunisation Schedule

    very nice and useful sharing dear

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    umaravi
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    Re: Immunisation Schedule

    Thanks da


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    Top 10 Vaccinations for Children!

    March 16, World Vaccination Day!!!!.

    DPT, HiB, IPV, Pneumococcal; which of these vaccines are mandatory, optional? When should they be given and how important are these? If these are the questions that you are battling with, then here is a brief guide on the top 10 vaccines for children.

    Vaccines can be oral vaccine like OPV or it can be injected, like Hepatitis or DPT. Vaccines can be single vaccine like those given for Measles or a combination of more than one like DPT, MMR etc.

    So which of these are the required vaccinations for children? Let us check it out.

    Mandatory Vaccinations for Children:

    BCG:
    This vaccine is used against tuberculosis and is given to the baby soon after birth. The vaccine prevents severe forms of TB from affecting kids. But it cannot stop TB from becoming active in adolescents and adults at a later stage.

    Polio:
    OPV is the vaccine given to the kids to ward against polio. This mandatory vaccine is given free of cost to children below five years of age under the Pulse Polio Program of the government. Poliomyelitis as the disease is known, is a disease affecting the nerves thereby causing paralysis and permanent disability.

    There are two types of vaccine against polio; IPV or inactivated polio vaccine which is an injection and OPV or oral polio vaccine administered orally. IPV is generally given when the baby is 2 months, 4 months, 6-18 months and as a booster dose at 4-6 years.



    Measles
    :
    This vaccine is a mandatory vaccine given to a toddler when it is nine months old. Measles is a viral infection which when left untreated can lead to pneumonia, brain infection and at later stages even death. An MMR vaccine which vaccinates against a host of diseases like measles, mumps and rubella is further given as a booster dose at the age of 15 months.

    DPT:
    The DPT is a combination vaccine (mix of three vaccines) to protect against three deadly diseases Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertrussis. Diphtheria starts as a sore throat and can be deadly. Tetanus is an infection of wound but can affect muscles and nerves of body and can be fatal. Pertrussis is whooping cough which affects lungs but can later lead to brain damage and death. There are various types of DPT vaccines like DPwT (Triple Antigen), DPaT, dT, TdaP etc. The DPT vaccine is given around 6, 10 and 14 weeks and booster dosage is given around 15-18 months and also at 5 years.


    Optional Vaccines:

    Hib:
    The Hib vaccine treats Haemophilus influenzae type B bacteria which strikes kids under the age of five. The disease can enter lungs and blood stream and can cause pneumonia, infection of blood, bone joints etc. Hib is generally given to children at the age of 2 months, 4 months, 6 months and 12-15 months of age.

    Influenza:
    This vaccine is given for children above 6 months of age and is used to treat viral infections caused by influenza virus.

    Rotavirus:
    This virus effects gastrointestinal tract causing gastroenteritis. These infections are generally severe for children who are under the age of 3-24 months old. Depending on the brand 2-3 oral doses are given at 2, 4 and 6 months of age.

    Pneumococcal:
    This vaccine protects against a group of diseases caused by streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria and can effect lungs, blood and brain. The Indian Academy of pediatrics recommends 3 doses at 6, 10, 14 weeks and a booster dose at 15 months for children.

    Hepatitis A:
    This vaccine protects against hepatitis A which leads to jaundice and liver infection. There are 3 vaccines Biovac, Havrix and Avaxim in India against Hepatitis. The Hepatitis A vaccine is either single or double depending on the type of vaccine used.

    Hepatitis B:
    This vaccine protects against HBV virus which can cause acute hepatitis. Three doses are given, one at birth, 6 weeks and then when the baby reaches 14 weeks.
    It is always a good idea to discuss the vaccination schedule for children with a pediatrician and learn the required vaccination for the children.


    (Source: Unknown, fwd)


    Last edited by deepa bala; 19th Mar 2013 at 05:55 PM.

  7. #7
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    Re: Top 10 Vaccinations for Children!

    Very important information Deepa. thank you


  8. #8
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    Re: Top 10 Vaccinations for Children!

    ok deepa
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    Re: Top 10 Vaccinations for Children!

    ​Thanks for sharing the very useful and important infos. regarding vaccination.

    Jayanthy





  10. #10
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    Re: Top 10 Vaccinations for Children!

    Thank u Sumi sis, Viswanathan sir & Jay sis


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