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மெய்ப்பொருள் - A Parenting Checklist


Discussions on "மெய்ப்பொருள் - A Parenting Checklist" in "Newborn and Infants" forum.


  1. #21
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - A Parenting Checklist

    12. Should I Breastfeed From Both Breasts Each Time I Feed My Baby?

    Take your cue from your baby. She may want to have milk from one or from both breasts at each feed. You can start feeding her from, say the right breast at one feed and from the left at the next.

    13. What Causes Soreness Of Nipples?

    Some mothers get sore or cracked nipples in the first week of breastfeeding because of poor positioning of the baby on the breast. The baby does not have enough of the breast in her mouth and she suckles only the nipple, thus hurting it.

    Do remember that frequent or prolonged suckling does not cause sore nipples.

    Another possible cause of sore nipples is introducing the child to artificial ‘nipples’ like the teat of a bottle, a pacifier or a nipple shield in the first weeks of life. This can affect proper suckling at the breast, resulting in sore nipples.

    Also, if a mother takes the baby off the breast without first breaking the suction (by putting a finger between the breast and the baby’s mouth), she may get sore nipples.

    Breastfeeding must be continued despite sore or cracked nipples. However, the baby should be positioned properly on the breast with enough of the breast in her mouth.

    Expose the nipples to air (and also the sun, if possible) and apply a drop of hind milk to the cracked nipples.

    The soreness usually settles down within a few days. If the soreness persists or if it suddenly appears after a week or two of delivery, it is usually due to a fungal infection. The area around the nipple feels itchy and the pain seems to shoot down into the breast. The baby may also have thrush (white curd-like patches inside the mouth that are not easy to remove). Your doctor will prescribe a local application for the nipples as well as the baby’s mouth. Sometimes, you may also need to be given an oral medication.

    It is important to remember that a little tenderness of the nipples, when you begin to breastfeed, is quite normal in the first 2 or 3 days after delivery.

    Moderator Note:

    This Article has been published in
    Penmai eMagazine April 2014. You Can download & Read the magazines HERE.


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    Last edited by Parasakthi; 22nd Apr 2014 at 01:09 PM.
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  2. #22
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - A Parenting Checklist

    14. Would Washing The Breast Before And After Each Feed And Application Of Any Cream Or Ointment Help In The Prevention Or Treatment Of Sore Or Cracked Nipples?

    No. It is just the opposite. Daily bathing is enough. Never wash your nipples with soap. Frequent washing or cleaning of the breast is likely to remove the anti-bacterial lubricating oil produced by the Montgomery’s glands present in the areola. This can lead to dryness and thus contribute to soreness of nipples. Avoid using creams or ointments sold in the market for the prevention or treatment of sore or cracked nipples. They may actually add to the problem.

    15. My Baby Is One Month Old And Has Been Exclusively Breastfed. How Do I Know That She Has Been Getting Enough Breast Milk?

    A baby who is having only mother’s milk and nothing else and who urinates 6 to 8 times or more in 24 hours is getting enough breast milk.

    If you fail to count the number of times she passes urine, look at the colour of her urine. A light-coloured urine most of the time is an indication that she is getting enough breast milk. An occasional passage of dark urine can be ignored. However, in the first few days at the hospital after delivery, the frequency of urine may be less as the colostrum has less amount of water in it. Also, if the baby is kept wrapped up al the time, she may sweat and thus may pass less urine. This urine may also appear dark in colour.

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    Penmai eMagazine May 2014. You Can download & Read the magazines HERE.

    Last edited by Parasakthi; 25th Jul 2014 at 06:15 PM.
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  3. #23
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - A Parenting Checklist

    16. But Why Do Most Of My Friends Complain That They Are Not Getting Enough Breast Milk?

    If a child cries more often, many mothers, grandmothers or maidservants start assuming that the baby has been remaining hungry and is not getting enough breast milk. They often forget that crying in a baby is not always due to hunger. She probably wants to be held and cuddled for more body contact. She may need to suckle the breast simply for comfort. She may have a wet nappy or colic or may be feeling hot or cold or just not feeling well.

    A large number of mothers also start assuming wrongly that they are not producing enough milk if the child’s hand goes to her mouth and she starts sucking her fingers. This sucking is due to the rooting reflex. If anything touches the baby’s cheeks, including her own fingers, she tends to turn her mouth in that direction. This is called rooting.

    Mothers also worry that the baby is not getting enough if she feeds for a prolonged period or if she finishes her breastfeed fast. Some babies are fast feeders; others are slow. Also, as babies grow older, they may finish the feed in a shorter time compared to the early days when they suckled for a longer period.

    Some mothers wrongly start assuming that they are not producing enough milk if the breasts feel soft. ‘Congested breasts’ is a phenomenon of only the early days or if frequent suckling is not emptying the breasts. When the supply and demand of breast milk are well adjusted between the mother and the baby, the breasts should and do feel soft. In any case, the mother should note the colour of the urine and count the number of times the baby passes urine and onlythen decide if her baby is getting enough milk or not.

    17. Why Do Some Babies Suddenly Stop Breastfeeding?

    The cause may be as simple as the mother beginning to smell different; for example, if she eats a lot of garlic, or uses a new kind of soap or perfume.

    On the other hand, it may be something serious, For instance, a baby who stops suckling may have developed a serious infection or may have suffered brain damage.

    Other cases include a very small baby weighing less than 1800 gms who needs expressed breast milk given with a cup or bondla (also called paladai or jhinook) until she can suckle more strongly; a baby having a blocked nose due to a cold or one having thrush (a fungal infection) in her mouth; a baby who is used to the teat of a bottle, and one who has been separated from the mother for some time.

    Sometimes, a mother may have an oversupply of milk and a large amount of milk may pour into the baby’s mouth, making her choke. In such cases, we advise the mother to express some milk before each feed. Or the mother could lie on her back, and keep the baby on her chest and then breastfeed. Sometimes, of course, the baby may really not be getting enough milk.

    Moderator Note:

    This Article has been published in
    Penmai eMagazine June 2014. You Can download & Read the magazines HERE.

    Last edited by Parasakthi; 25th Jul 2014 at 06:15 PM.
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  4. #24
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - A Parenting Checklist

    18. Should A Working Woman Get Her Baby Used To Bottle-Feeding?

    As per Central Government rules, a woman is entitled to 4% months’ paid maternity leave. She is also allowed to take any leave due to her after that period. A working mother can breastfeed the baby when she is at home and breastfeed more often during holidays. When she is at work, expressed breast milk, mashed. banana and other fruits, homemade soft foods, and beaten curds or buttermilk can be given to the baby. If essential, artificial milk can also be given.

    Expressed breast milk can be stored for at least 4 hours at room temperature without getting spoiled. Avoid bottlefeeding. Babies easily get used to taking milk directly from a small glass or a bondla.

    A tragic situation arises when the mother introduces the bottle in the first weeks after delivery for the baby ‘to get used to the bottle’. As the process of sucking through the artificial nipple of the bottle is different from suckling at the breast, the baby may start preferring the bottle and avoid breastfeeding. This may lead to failure in breastfeeding.

    19. Is It True That Green Motions Mean That The Baby Is Not Getting Enough Milk?

    Not really. If the baby is active and passes urine normally, the green motions are normal. The so-called ‘starvation stools’ are seen in an emaciated child who passes traces of green mucus in place of normal stools. This baby does not gain weight and looks miserable.

    20. Is Allergy To Mother’s Milk Common?

    Allergy to cow milk or powder milk is quite common, but not allergy to breast milk. That is why we advise exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. In the first months of life, the baby’s intestines are not fully matured and foreign substances present in cow, buffalo or powder milk may enter the system of the baby through the immature intestine. Such babies are more prone to allergic diseases like allergic milk intolerance with severe vomiting and diarrhoea and allergic rash, asthma or eczema.

    Moderator Note:

    This Article has been published in
    Penmai eMagazine July 2014. You Can download & Read the magazines HERE.



    Last edited by Parasakthi; 25th Jul 2014 at 06:16 PM.
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  5. #25
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - A Parenting Checklist

    Benefits of Breastmilk and Breastfeeding: (Overall)

    Although most women in developing countries initiate breastfeeding, the promotion of breastmilk substitutes, changing societal values, urbanization, and the erosion of traditional support systems pose threats to breastfeeding. The benefits of breastfeeding and the differences between breastmilk and breastmilk substitutes need to be repeated to reinforce the message, educate new audiences, and sustain individual behavior change.

    Nutritional Benefits

    Meets all of an infant's nutritional requirements for the first six months and is superior to any substitute. Changes in composition to meet baby's changing needs.Continues to be an important source of high quality protein, energy, vitamins (especially vitamin A), minerals, and fatty acids for older infants and toddlers.

    Health Benefits

    For infant:
    Protects against illnesses and enhances the baby's immune system, providing long-term protection against diabetes and cancer.

    For mother:
    Reduces risk of maternal postpartum hemorrhage.

    Helps shrink the uterus back to normal size.

    Delays return of menses, which helps to protect mother against anemia by conserving iron.

    Reduces risk of developing premenopausal breast and ovarian cancer.

    Moderator's Note: This Article has been published in Penmai eMagazine August 2014. You Can download & Read the magazines HERE.

    Last edited by sumathisrini; 26th Aug 2014 at 09:57 AM.
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  6. #26
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - A Parenting Checklist

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND EARLY LEARNING

    1. The early years, especially the first three years of life, are very important for building the baby’s brain. Everything she or he sees, touches, tastes, smells or hears helps to shape the brain for thinking, feeling, moving and learning.

    A child’s brain develops rapidly during the first five years of life, especially the first three years. It is a time of rapid cognitive, linguistic, social, emotional and motor development. For example, a child learns many words starting at around 15–18 months. Rapid language learning continues into the preschool years.

    The child’s brain grows as she or he sees, feels, tastes, smells and hears. Each time the child uses one of the senses, a neural connection is made in the child’s brain. New experiences repeated many times help make new connections, which shape the way the child thinks, feels, behaves and learns now and in the future.


    A close relationship between the child and the caregiver is the best way to nourish the child’s growing brain. When a caregiver plays with and sings, speaks, reads or tells a story to the child and nurtures her or him with healthy food, love and affection, the child’s brain grows. Being healthy, interacting with caregivers and living in a safe and clean environment can make a big difference in a child’s growth, development and future potential.


    Babies need lots of care and affection in the early years. Holding, cuddling and talking to the child stimulate brain growth and promote emotional development. Being kept close to the mother and breastfed on demand provide the infant with a sense of emotional security. The baby suckles for both nutrition and comfort.


    For young children, crying is a way of communicating. Responding to the child’s cry by holding and/or talking soothingly to her or him will help establish a sense of trust and security.


    This kind of early bonding and attachment to the mother, father or other close caregiver helps a child develop a broad range of abilities to use and build upon throughout life.
    These include the ability to:

    learn
    be self-confident and have high self-esteem
    have positive social skills
    have successful relationships at later ages
    develop a sense of empathy.
    As children’s brains develop, so do their emotions, which are real and powerful. Children may become frustrated if they are unable to do something or have something they want. They are often frightened of strangers, new situations or the dark. Children whose reactions are laughed at, punished or ignored may grow up shy and unable to express emotions normally. If caregivers are patient and sympathetic when a child expresses strong emotions, the child is more likely to grow up happy, secure and well balanced.

    Boys and girls have the same physical, mental, emotional and social needs. Both have the same capacity for learning. Both have the same need for affection, attention and approval.


    Young children can experience excessive stress if they are physically or emotionally punished, are exposed to violence, are neglected or abused, or live in families with mental illness, such as depression or substance abuse. These stresses interfere with the developing brain and can lead to cognitive, social and emotional delays and behaviour problems in childhood and later in life.


    Children who are physically or mentally punished in anger are more likely to become violent themselves.
    More positive and effective ways to address children’s behaviour can include:

    providing a child with clear explanations about what to do and what not to do
    responding consistently to certain behaviours
    praising good behaviour.
    These responses by parents and other caregivers encourage children so they become well-adjusted and productive members of the family and community.

    Both parents, as well as other family members, need to be involved in caring and nurturing the growth, learning and development of children. They should make both girls and boys feel equally valued as they encourage them to learn and explore – this is important preparation for school.


    Mothers around the world generally take on the primary role of addressing their children’s rights and needs. They love, feed, console, teach, play with and care for their children.


    A father’s role is as vital as the mother’s in nurturing and caring for their children and protecting their rights. A father should make daughters and sons feel they are equally important. Just like the mother, the father can help meet their child’s needs for love, affection, approval, encouragement and stimulation. Together, the mother and father can ensure that the child receives a quality education and good nutrition and health care.


    Moderator's Note:

    This Article has been published in Penmai eMagazine September 2014. You Can download & Read the magazines HERE.


    Last edited by sumathisrini; 24th Sep 2014 at 09:30 AM.
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  7. #27
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - A Parenting Checklist

    2. Babies learn rapidly from the moment of birth. They grow and learn best when responsive and caring parents and other caregivers give them affection, attention and stimulation in addition to good nutrition, proper health care and protection.

    Touch, hearing, smell, sight and taste are learning tools the child uses to explore and understand her or his world.

    Affection, attention and stimulation

    Children’s minds develop rapidly when they are talked to, touched and cuddled; when they see and hear familiar faces and voices; and when they handle different objects.


    Children learn quickly when they feel loved and secure from birth and when they play and interact with family members and other people close to them. The more often mothers, fathers and other caregivers play with, talk to and respond to the child, the faster she or he learns.


    Parents and other caregivers should consistently talk, read and sing to infants and young children. Even if the child is not yet able to understand the words, these early ‘conversations’ help to develop social and language skills and learning capacities.


    Parents and other caregivers can help children learn and grow by giving them new, interesting and safe things to look at, listen to, smell, hold and play with.


    Children who feel secure and loved usually do better in school, are more self-confident, have good self-esteem and are able to cope more easily with life’s challenges.


    Good nutrition

    Exclusive breastfeeding on demand for the first six months, timely introduction of safe and nutritious foods at the age of 6 months and continued breastfeeding for two years or beyond provide the child with optimal nutrition and health benefits. Feeding time is also an opportunity for the child to receive affection and have contact with the mother, father or other caregiver.


    Good nutrition is vital for a child’s growth and development. The diet of a pregnant woman and that of a young child should be varied and nutritious. It should include essential nutrients such as proteins and essential fats to help a child’s body grow and have energy, vitamin A to help a child resist illness, iodine to help ensure the healthy development of a child’s brain, and iron to protect a child’s mental and physical abilities.


    While the mother has the primary role of breastfeeding the child, the father can support her by making sure she has nutritious food, helping with household and childcare responsibilities, and being emotionally supportive of her, the baby, the older children and other family members.


    Proper health care

    The health worker should inform parents and other caregivers about:

    ● necessary immunizations and the schedule to follow
    ● how to avoid anaemia and parasitic diseases in children over 6 months of age
    ● why deworming is important
    ● how to ensure that the child gets enough nutrients, such as iron and vitamin A, for her or his healthy mental and physical development.

    Children who are anaemic, malnourished or frequently sick may become fearful and upset more easily than healthy children. They will also lack the drive to play, explore and interact with others. These children need special attention, care and encouragement to eat, play and interact with others in order to become healthy.

    Infants who have completed their immunizations on time and are receiving proper nutrition, health care, love and affection have an increased chance of survival. They are able to concentrate on exploring, learning and developing cognitive, language, social, emotional and motor skills.


    Protection and care from responsive and caring parents and/or other caregivers

    Babies and small children should not be left alone for long periods of time. This delays their physical and mental development. It also puts them at risk of accidents.

    Girls need the same amount of food, attention, affection and care that boys need. All babies and young children need to be encouraged and praised when they learn to do something new and say new words.


    All girls and boys should have their birth registered in order to help ensure their right to access basic services, such as health care, education and legal and social services.


    Moderator's Note: This Article has been published in Penmai eMagazine October 2014. You Can download & Read the magazines
    HERE.


    Last edited by sumathisrini; 17th Oct 2014 at 04:16 PM.
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  8. #28
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - A Parenting Checklist

    3. Encouraging children to play and explore helps them learn and develop socially, emotionally, physically and intellectually. This helps children get ready for school.

    Children play because it is fun. Play is also key to their learning and development. Playing, both structured and unstructured, lays the foundation for a child’s development of future learning and life skills. It helps children:

    develop their knowledge, experience, curiosity and confidence
    learn by trying things, comparing results, asking questions and meeting challenges
    develop the skills of language, thinking, planning, organizing and decision-making.

    Stimulation, play and being included in play with other children and adults are very important for children with disabilities or chronic illnesses, such as children with HIV.

    When parents and other caregivers talk and interact with children in their first language, it helps children develop the ability to think and express themselves. Children learn language quickly and easily through hearing and singing songs, having stories told or read to them, repeating rhymes and playing games.


    Girls and boys need the same opportunities for play and interaction with all family members, including siblings and grandparents, and in activities
    outside the home. Play and interaction with the mother and the father help strengthen the bond between the child and both parents.

    Family members and other caregivers can help children learn by giving them simple tasks with clear instructions, providing objects to play with and suggesting new activities. They should not dominate the child’s play.


    All children need a variety of simple play materials that are suitable for their stage of development and learning. Water, sand, cardboard boxes, wooden building blocks, and pots and lids are just as good for facilitating a child’s play and learning as toys bought from a shop.


    Parents and caregivers need to be patient when a very young child insists on trying to do something without help. Children learn by trying until they succeed. As long as the child is protected from danger, struggling to do something new and difficult is a positive step in the child’s development.


    Children are constantly changing and developing new abilities. Caregivers should notice these changes and follow the child’s lead. Responding to and encouraging children helps them develop more quickly.


    As young children grow older they need opportunities to learn and socialize with other children of their age. Group learning activities, run by a trained caregiver or teacher at home or in a nursery school or kindergarten, are important in helping children get ready for school.

    Moderator's Note: This Article has been published in Penmai eMagazine Nov. 2014. You Can download & Read the magazines HERE.





    Last edited by sumathisrini; 18th Nov 2014 at 08:15 PM.
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - A Parenting Checklist

    4. Children learn how to behave (socially and emotionally) by imitating the behaviour of those closest to them.

    By watching and imitating others, young children learn how to interact socially. They learn acceptable and unacceptable kinds of behaviour.

    The examples set by adults, older siblings and children are the most powerful influences shaping a child’s behaviour and personality. One way children learn is by copying what others do. If men and women do not treat each other equally, the child will observe, learn and probably copy this behaviour. If adults shout, behave violently, exclude or discriminate, children will learn this type of behaviour. If adults treat others with kindness, respect and patience, children will follow their example. If mothers and fathers treat each other with love and respect, this is what their children will learn and most likely ‘replay’ in their adult relationships.


    Children like to pretend. This should be encouraged, as it develops their imagination and creativity. It also helps the child understand different ways people behave.

    Moderator's Note: This Article has been published in Penmai eMagazine December 2014. You Can download & Read the magazines HERE.






    Last edited by sumathisrini; 21st Dec 2014 at 04:08 PM.
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - A Parenting Checklist

    5. Entering primary school on time is critical to ensure the continuity of a child’s development. Support from parents, other caregivers, teachers and the community is very important.

    In most countries, children start primary school at around 6 or 7 years of age. Starting school is a critical stage in a child’s development.

    Both girls and boys should start school at the appropriate age (in accordance with their country’s policy). By the time they enter school, they should have basic cognitive and language skills and sufficient social competency and emotional development to allow them to enjoy learning in the formal school setting.


    The support of parents and other caregivers is very important for children’s successful transition to school. Parents and other caregivers should equally and fully support both girls and boys in attending school regularly and being well prepared. They should also be involved in school activities. This helps children adapt to the school setting, settle more quickly into the school learning environment and attend school regularly.


    Teachers should be prepared to support young children who are still developing their basic potential for learning. Teachers have a key role in building the confidence of both girls and boys so that they can equally enjoy and succeed at learning. Play continues to be a basic medium of teaching and learning in the early school years. A child-friendly school that supports active learning and promotes participation offers the best learning environment for children.


    Along with families and the school, the community – both local authorities and civil society – can contribute to:

    ● making school a priority within the community
    ● making sure the school is a safe and welcoming place for all children
    ● making sure the school has the resources it needs, including community members involved in school management and parent-teacher associations.

    Moderator's Note:

    This Article has been published in Penmai eMagazine Jan 2015. You Can download & Read the magazines HERE.


    Last edited by Parasakthi; 23rd Jan 2015 at 01:28 PM.
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