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மெய்ப்பொருள் - A Parenting Checklist


Discussions on "மெய்ப்பொருள் - A Parenting Checklist" in "Newborn and Infants" forum.


  1. #31
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - A Parenting Checklist

    6. All children grow and develop in similar patterns, but each child develops at her or his own pace. Every child has her or his own interests, temperament, style of social interaction and approach to learning.

    Understanding the ages and stages of child development helps parents understand the changes to expect as a child grows and develops (*refer to the first 7 posts of this thread for the Child development chart). Parents or other caregivers should be able to seek help when they feel their child is not developing as expected.

    By observing how young children respond to touch, sound and sight, parents can identify signs of possible developmental problems or disabilities. If a young child is developing slowly, parents and other caregivers can help by spending extra time with the child, playing and talking with the child, and massaging the child’s body.


    If the child does not respond to attention and stimulation, parents and other caregivers need to seek help from a trained health worker. Taking early action is very important in helping children who have delays and disabilities reach their full potential. Parents and other caregivers need to encourage the greatest possible development of the child’s abilities.


    A girl or boy with a disability needs lots of love and extra protection. She or he needs all the same attention, care and support every other child needs: birth registration, breastfeeding, immunizations, nutritious food, and protection from abuse and violence. Like all children, children with disabilities should be encouraged to play and interact with other children.


    A child who is unhappy or experiencing emotional difficulties may exhibit unusual behaviour. Examples include:

    ● suddenly becoming emotional, unfriendly, sad, lazy or unhelpful
    ● consistently acting out or misbehaving
    ● crying often
    ● having sleep difficulties
    ● becoming violent with other children
    ● sitting alone instead of playing with family or friends
    ● suddenly having no interest in usual activities or schoolwork
    ● losing appetite.

    The child’s parents or other caregivers should be encouraged to talk with and listen to the child. If the problem persists, they should seek help from a trained health worker or teacher.

    If a child has mental or emotional difficulties or has been abused, she or he needs mental health or counselling services. The child should be assessed to determine what support and treatment are needed.



    (*Those chart gives parents an idea of how young children develop. Each stage of development is part of a continuum, building on the previous stage and affecting the next. Not all children grow and develop at the same pace. Slow progress may be normal or may be due to inadequate nutrition, poor health, lack of stimulation or a more serious problem. Parents may wish to discuss their child’s progress with a trained health worker or a teacher).

    Moderator's Note:This Article has been published in Penmai eMagazine February 2015. You Can download & Read the magazines HERE.




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    Last edited by sumathisrini; 22nd Feb 2015 at 07:01 PM.
    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

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  2. #32
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - A Parenting Checklist

    SAFE MOTHERHOOD AND NEWBORN HEALTH

    1. Girls who are educated and healthy and who have a nutritious diet throughout their childhood and teenage years are more likely to have healthy babies and go through pregnancy and childbirth safely if childbearing begins after they are 18 years old.

    2.
    The risks associated with childbearing for the mother and her baby can be greatly reduced if a woman is healthy and well nourished before becoming pregnant. During pregnancy and while breastfeeding, all women need more nutritious meals, increased quantities of food, more rest than usual, iron-folic acid or multiple micronutrient supplements, even if they are consuming fortified foods, and iodized salt to ensure the proper mental development of their babies.

    3.
    Every pregnancy is special. All pregnant women need at least four prenatal care visits to help ensure a safe and healthy pregnancy. Pregnant women and their families need to be able to recognize the signs of labour and the warning signs of pregnancy complications. They need to have plans and resources for obtaining skilled care for the birth and immediate help if problems arise.

    4.
    Childbirth is the most critical period for the mother and her baby. Every pregnant woman must have a skilled birth attendant, such as a midwife, doctor or nurse, assisting her during childbirth, and she must also have timely access to specialized care if complications should occur.

    5.
    Post-natal care for the mother and child reduces the risk of complications and supports mothers and fathers or other caregivers to help their new baby get a healthy start in life. The mother and child should be checked regularly during the first 24 hours after childbirth, in the first week, and again six weeks after birth. If there are complications, more frequent checkups are necessary.

    6.
    A healthy mother, a safe birth, essential newborn care and attention, a loving family and a clean home environment contribute greatly to newborn health and survival.

    7.
    Smoking, alcohol, drugs, poisons and pollutants are particularly harmful to pregnant women, the developing fetus, babies and young children.

    8.
    Violence against women is a serious public health problem in most communities. When a woman is pregnant, violence is very dangerous to both the woman and her pregnancy. It increases the risk of miscarriage, premature labour and having a low-birthweight baby.

    9.
    In the workplace, pregnant women and mothers should be protected from discrimination and exposure to health risks and granted time to breastfeed or express breastmilk. They should be entitled to maternity leave, employment protection, medical benefits and, where applicable, cash support.

    10.
    Every woman has the right to quality health care, especially a pregnant woman or a new mother. Health workers should be technically competent and sensitive to cultural practices and should treat all women, including adolescent girls, with respect.

    Moderator's Note:This Article has been published in Penmai eMagazine March 2015. You Can download & Read the magazines HERE.



    Last edited by sumathisrini; 25th Mar 2015 at 04:15 PM.
    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

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  3. #33
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - A Parenting Checklist

    IMMUNIZATION

    Each year, over 1.4 million children die from diseases that are preventable with readily available vaccines.

    These diseases include measles, meningitis caused by
    Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib), diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), yellow fever, polio and hepatitis B. New vaccines against other illnesses, such as pneumonia and diarrhoea caused by rotavirus, have been developed and are now more widely used.

    Children who are immunized are protected from these dangerous diseases, which can often lead to disability or death. All children have the right to this protection.


    Every girl and boy needs to be fully immunized. Early protection is critical. The immunizations in the child’s first year and into the second year are especially important. It is also essential that pregnant women are immunized against tetanus to protect themselves as well as their newborns.


    Although there has been progress in the past years in immunizing children, in 2008 nearly 24 million children — almost 20% of children born each year — did not get the routine immunizations scheduled for the first year of life.


    Parents or other caregivers need to know why immunization is important, the recommended immunization schedule, and where their children can be immunized.


    Parents or other caregivers need to know that it is safe to immunize a child who has a minor illness or a disability or is suffering from malnutrition.


    Moderator's Note:This Article has been published in Penmai eMagazine April 2015. You Can download & Read the magazines
    HERE.



    Last edited by sumathisrini; 24th May 2015 at 10:09 PM.
    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

    Ramesh

  4. #34
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - A Parenting Checklist

    Key Messages:

    What every family and community has a right to know about IMMUNIZATION

    1. Immunization is urgent. Every child should complete the recommended series of immunizations. Early protection is critical; the immunizations in the first year and into the second year are especially important. All parents or other caregivers should follow the advice of a trained health worker on when to complete the required immunizations.

    2.
    Immunization protects against several dangerous diseases. A child who is not immunized is more likely to become sick, permanently disabled or undernourished, and could possibly die.

    3.
    It is safe to immunize a child who has a minor illness or a disability or is malnourished.

    4.
    All pregnant women and their newborns need to be protected against tetanus. Even if a woman was immunized earlier, she needs to check with a trained health worker for advice on tetanus toxoid immunization.

    5.
    A new syringe must be used for every person being immunized. People should demand a new syringe for every vaccination.

    6.
    Disease can spread quickly when people are crowded together. All children living in congested conditions, particularly in refugee or disaster situations, should be immunized immediately, especially against measles.

    7.
    The vaccination card of a child (or an adult) should be presented to the health worker before every immunization.


    Moderator's Note:This Article has been published in Penmai eMagazine May 2015. You Can download & Read the magazines
    HERE.



    Last edited by sumathisrini; 24th May 2015 at 10:09 PM.
    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

    Ramesh

  5. #35
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - A Parenting Checklist

    1. Immunization is urgent. Every child should complete the recommended series of immunizations. Early protection is critical; the immunizations in the first year and into the second year are especially important. All parents or other caregivers should follow the advice of a trained health worker on when to complete the required immunizations.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION

    Children must be immunized early in life. It is essential that infants, both girls and boys, get all recommended vaccines at the right time. Some vaccines require multiple doses for full protection. It is important for every child to complete the full number of these immunizations.

    To protect the child during and beyond the first year of life, the immunizations in the following chart are necessary. These are most effective when given at the ages specified, or as close to those ages as possible.



    Immunization schedule for infants 3
    Age at immunization
    Location
    Immunization
    At birth All countries BCG4
    Some countries Hepatitis B, polio
    6–8 weeks All countries DTP5 (also known as DPT), polio
    Most countries Hepatitis B and Hib
    Some countries Pneumococcal (conjugate), rotavirus
    10–12 weeks All countries DTP, polio
    Most countries Hepatitis B and Hib
    Some countries Pneumococcal (conjugate), rotavirus
    14–24 weeks All countries DTP, polio
    Most countries Hepatitis B and Hib
    Some countries Pneumococcal (conjugate), rotavirus6
    9 months Some countries Yellow fever
    9–15 months All countries Measles
    12–18 months Some countries Mumps and rubella
    15 months–6 years All countries Measles7
    3 Parents, caregivers and health workers should follow the national immunization schedule.
    4 BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccine offers partial protection against some forms of tuberculosis and leprosy.
    5 DTP (DPT) protects against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (whooping cough); many countries use
    DTPHepBHib, a five-in-one combination, vaccine also known as a pentavalent vaccine.
    6 This is only for those receiving Rotateq™ vaccine, which has a three-dose schedule. A two-dose schedule is recommended for the Rotarix™ vaccine.
    7 A minimum gap of one month should be given between the first and second doses of measles vaccine.


    As new vaccines become available, more vaccines are recommended for all countries. But some vaccines are only needed in countries where certain diseases are present.

    Parents and health workers should follow the locally recommended immunization schedule.


    If a child does not complete the full series of immunizations in the first and into the second year of life, it is extremely important to have the child fully immunized as soon as possible. This can be done during special campaigns.


    In some countries, additional vaccine doses, called ‘booster shots’, are offered after the first year of life. These help to sustain the effectiveness of the vaccine so the child is protected longer.


    Moderator's Note:This Article has been published in Penmai eMagazine May 2015. You Can download & Read the magazines
    HERE.





    Last edited by sumathisrini; 24th May 2015 at 10:10 PM.
    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

    Ramesh

  6. #36
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - A Parenting Checklist

    2. Immunization protects against several dangerous diseases. A child who is not immunized is more likely to become sick, permanently disabled or undernourished, and could possibly die.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION

    Immunization protects children against some of the most dangerous diseases of childhood. All children, including those who are disabled, need to be vaccinated. A child is immunized by vaccines, which are injected or given by mouth. The vaccines work by building up the child’s defences against diseases. Immunization only works if given
    before the disease strikes.

    A child who is not immunized is very likely to get measles, whooping cough and many other diseases that can kill. Children who survive these diseases are weakened and may not grow well. They may be permanently disabled. They may die later from malnutrition and other illnesses.


    All children need to be immunized with BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccine, which offers partial protection against some forms of tuberculosis and leprosy.


    All children need to be immunized against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis with DTP vaccine (also known as DPT vaccine). Diphtheria causes infection of the upper respiratory tract, which in severe cases may lead to breathing difficulties and death. Tetanus causes rigid muscles and painful muscle spasms and can be deadly. Pertussis, or whooping cough, affects the respiratory tract and can cause a cough that lasts four to eight weeks. The disease is very dangerous in infants.


    All pregnant women and infants need to be immunized against tetanus.


    Immunizing a woman or adolescent with at least two doses of tetanus toxoid before or during pregnancy protects the newborn for the first few weeks of life and protects the mother.

    At 6 weeks old, a baby needs the first dose of tetanus toxoid (the tetanus component of the DTP (DPT) vaccine) to extend the protection received from the mother against tetanus.

    All children need to be immunized against measles, which can be a major cause of malnutrition, poor mental development, and hearing and visual impairments. The signs that a child has measles are a fever and rash, together with a cough, a runny nose or red eyes. A child can die from measles.


    All children need to be immunized against polio. The signs of polio are a floppy limb or the inability to move. For every 200 children infected, one will be disabled for life.


    In countries where hepatitis B is a problem, up to 10 out of every 100 children will harbour the infection for life if they are not immunized with hepatitis B vaccine. Up to one quarter of children infected with hepatitis B may develop serious liver conditions such as cancer when they are older.


    In many countries, pneumonia caused by pneumococcus bacteria or
    Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) bacteria is common and kills many young children. Either of these bacteria can also cause childhood meningitis and other serious infections. These bacteria are among the most dangerous for children, particularly those under 5 years old. Vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine (Hib vaccine) and pneumococcal (conjugate) vaccine (PCV) can prevent these deaths.

    A pentavalent vaccine (five vaccines in one), combining the DTP (DPT), hepatitis B and Hib vaccines, is increasingly being used by national immunization programmes.
    Diarrhoea caused by rotavirus is common and can be severe. It affects nearly every child under age 5. Severe rotavirus diarrhoea is more common in developing countries where health care can be more difficult to access, resulting in many deaths in children under 5 years old, especially children under 2. Vaccination against rotavirus prevents diarrhoea caused by this virus. However, diarrhoea due to other bacteria or viruses can still occur in children who receive the rotavirus vaccine.

    In some countries, yellow fever puts the lives of many young children and adults at risk. Vaccination can prevent the disease.


    Japanese encephalitis virus is spread by mosquitoes, mainly in rural areas of Asian countries. It causes a severe illness, killing up to one third of those affected. Many survivors have brain damage. A trained health worker should be consulted for advice and information on national guidelines regarding use of this vaccine.


    Breastmilk and colostrum, the thick yellow milk produced during the first few days after a woman gives birth, provide protection against diarrhoea, pneumonia and other diseases. Colostrum is sometimes referred to as a newborn’s ‘first vaccine’, helping to build the child’s immunity to disease.


    In many countries where vitamin A deficiency is common, high-dose vitamin A capsules (or syrup) are administered to each child aged 6 months to 5 years, every four to six months. Vitamin A is distributed during routine immunization (such as with measles vaccine at 9 months) as well as during special immunization campaigns. Vitamin A is also an important part of measles treatment.


    Moderator's Note:This Article has been published in Penmai eMagazine June 2015. You Can download & Read the magazines HERE.

    Last edited by sumathisrini; 25th Jun 2015 at 06:51 PM.
    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

    Ramesh

  7. #37
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - A Parenting Checklist

    A complete valid information. It means a lot.
    Thanks thanks. I didn't have any words to say.
    Its very useful to my better half and my twin kids.

    Arumai Arumai. Ithanal palan adainthavanul nanum oruvan. I gonna suggest to read this to all in my family.

    Thanks.

    rameshshan likes this.

  8. #38
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - A Parenting Checklist

    Tnx Mr.Tarun..

    Being a 'Going-to-be' father i had personal interest of making aware of myself regard to parenting and its regulations. Thats what the intend of sharing it too.

    Pls do check 'மெய்ப்பொருள் - Nutrition & Growth Checklist for Kid' for info regard to children's Development prospects.






    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

    Ramesh

  9. #39
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - A Parenting Checklist

    3. It is safe to immunize a child who has a minor illness or a disability or is malnourished.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION

    Many parents do not take a child to be immunized because the child has a fever, cough, cold, diarrhoea or some other illness. However, it is safe to immunize a child who has a minor illness.


    It is also safe to immunize a child who has a disability or is malnourished. If a child is HIV-positive or suspected to be HIV-positive, a trained health worker should be consulted about which vaccines to give the child.


    After an injection, the child may cry or develop a fever, a minor rash or a small sore. This is normal and shows that the vaccine is working. Children under 6 months of age should breastfeed frequently; older children should be given plenty of liquids and foods. If the child develops a high fever (over 38 degrees Celsius) the child should be taken to a trained health worker or health centre.


    Measles can be extremely dangerous for malnourished children, so they should be immunized against measles, especially if the malnutrition is severe.


    Moderator's Note:This Article has been published in Penmai eMagazine July 2015. You Can download & Read the magazines
    HERE.



    Last edited by sumathisrini; 26th Aug 2015 at 10:45 PM.
    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

    Ramesh

  10. #40
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - A Parenting Checklist

    4. All pregnant women and their newborns need to be protected against tetanus. Even if a woman was immunized earlier, she needs to check with a trained health worker for advice on tetanus toxoid immunization.


    In many parts of the world, mothers give birth in unhygienic conditions. This puts both the mother and the child at risk of getting tetanus, a major killer of newborn infants.

    If a pregnant woman is not immunized against tetanus, and tetanus bacteria or spores enter her body, her life will also be at risk.


    Tetanus bacteria or spores grow in dirty cuts. These bacteria can grow if the umbilical cord is cut with an unclean knife or if anything unclean touches the end of the cord. Any tool used to cut the cord should be cleaned, boiled or heated over a flame, and allowed to cool. For the first week after birth, the baby’s umbilical stump must be kept clean. No substances should be put on the stump.


    All pregnant women should make sure they have been immunized against tetanus. This protects both mothers and newborns.


    It is safe for a pregnant woman to be immunized against tetanus. She should be immunized according to this schedule:


    First dose:
    As soon as she knows she is pregnant.
    Second dose:
    One month after the first dose, and no later than two weeks before her due date.
    Third dose:
    Six months to one year after the second dose, or during the next pregnancy.
    Fourth dose:
    One year after the third dose, or during a subsequent pregnancy.
    Fifth dose:
    One year after the fourth dose, or during a subsequent pregnancy.


    After five properly spaced doses, the mother is protected for life and her children are protected for the first few weeks of life.


    Moderator's Note:This Article has been published in Penmai eMagazine August 2015. You Can download & Read the magazines
    HERE.



    Last edited by sumathisrini; 26th Aug 2015 at 10:46 PM.
    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

    Ramesh

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