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மெய்ப்பொருள் - Child Protection


Discussions on "மெய்ப்பொருள் - Child Protection" in "Newborn and Infants" forum.


  1. #1
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    மெய்ப்பொருள் - Child Protection

    1. Every child should have the opportunity to grow up in a family. If a family is unable to care for the child, steps should be taken by the authorities to address the reasons and make every effort to keep the family together

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION
    Children grow best in a loving family environment in which their best interests are always taken into account.

    If a child is living without a parent or other caregiver, the authorities should take immediate action to reunite the child with her or his own family or extended family. But if it is determined that reunification is not the best option for the child, another permanent family situation should be sought. Every effort should be made to keep siblings together.

    Governments, with the support of civil society, have a responsibility to provide appropriate and well-monitored alternative care for children without families. Options include placement with:

    ● extended family
    ● a pre-screened foster family
    ● a residential facility that is integrated within the community, providing family-like care and supporting regular contact between the child and her or his family with the aim of reunification, if it is in the best interest of the child.


    Children should be involved in decisions on their placement in alternative living situations.

    Very often children placed in institutions could be raised in a family with the proper social support. While some orphanages are well managed, institutional life can be detrimental to children’s development. It typically separates them from family and community life and offers less protection from abuse and exploitation.

    Any form of institutional care should be considered a last resort and a temporary solution.


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    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

    Ramesh

  2. #2
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Child Protection

    2. Every child has a right to a name and nationality. Registering a child’s birth helps to ensure a child’s right to education, health care and legal and social services. Birth registration is a vital step towards protection from abuse and exploitation.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION
    Birth registration provides an official record of a child’s existence and nationality. It is considered a fundamental human right. A child without a birth certificate can be denied health care, legal services, access to school and the right to vote upon reaching adulthood.

    Registering a child’s birth is a vital step towards her or his protection. Children under age 5 with a birth certificate are more likely to be immunized and receive health care for childhood illnesses, assuring them a healthy start in life.

    Any enforcement of minimum-age legislation depends upon an official record of a child’s age. For example, a birth certificate can be used to protect a child from illegal recruitment by armed forces or armed groups, from child marriage or from hazardous forms of work.

    Birth registration should be free and accessible for every child. Where it is not, civil society organizations can sometimes assist families in registering their children.

    The birth registration process may be supported by social services, such as health care and education. Health centres and hospitals sometimes have civil registrars on site that can provide a child’s birth certificate at birth or during a health-care visit. Registration sometimes takes place in early childhood education programmes.


    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

    Ramesh

  3. #3
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Child Protection

    3. Girls and boys must be protected from all forms of violence and abuse. This includes physical, sexual and emotional abuse, neglect and harmful practices such as child marriage and genital mutilation/cutting of girls. Families, communities and authorities are responsible for ensuring this protection.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION
    Girls and boys can encounter different forms of violence, abuse and/or harmful practices in many settings:

    In the family and home:
    ● physical violence
    ● psychological violence
    ● sexual violence and abuse
    ● corporal (physical) punishment
    ● neglect and abandonment
    ● child marriage
    ● harmful traditional practices, such as female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C).

    In schools and other educational activities:
    ● corporal punishment
    ● psychological punishment
    ● sexual and gender-based violence
    ● verbal and physical bullying
    ● fighting.

    In care and justice institutions (e.g., orphanages, children’s homes and detention facilities):
    ● physical and psychological violence under the guise of discipline
    ● neglect
    ● child-on-child violence
    ● sexual abuse and violence.

    In workplaces:
    ● physical and psychological punishment
    ● humiliation
    ● sexual harassment and abuse.

    In the community (among peers, between gangs, by the police and by traffickers):
    ● physical violence
    ● armed violence
    ● sexual violence.

    Children who experience or witness violence often remain silent out of fear, shame or stigma. Some accept it as part of life. While some violence is perpetrated by strangers, most is carried out by people children know and should be able to trust and look to for protection. These may include parents, step-parents or a parent’s partner, relatives, caregivers, boyfriends and girlfriends, schoolmates, teachers, religious leaders and employers.

    All girls and boys can be subjects of abuse. Generally, boys tend to be at greater risk of physical and armed violence and girls face greater risk of neglect and sexual violence and exploitation.

    Certain groups of children are particularly vulnerable to violence. These include children with disabilities, children of minority groups, children living or working on the street, children in conflict with the law, and children who are refugees, displaced or migrating.

    Babies and young children are sometimes the object of a parent’s or other caregiver’s anger or frustration, often when children do not stop crying. The caregiver may shake the baby or young child so hard and violently that it causes injury to the child’s brain that can lead to permanent injury or death. It is never okay to shake a child. Symptoms of violent shaking include irritability, difficulty staying awake, difficulty breathing, shakiness, vomiting, seizures or coma. These symptoms require immediate medical care.

    Typically, the focus is on intervention after child maltreatment occurs. Due to the magnitude of the problem, it is critical that communities shift the emphasis to preventing child violence, abuse, neglect and harmful practices.

    Every community should create and implement a plan of action to eliminate violence against children.

    Some key actions may include:

    ● develop and broadly communicate codes of conduct against all forms of violence in settings where children live, go to school, play and work
    ● educate parents and caregivers to respect the child’s perspective, learn how to use positive and non-violent discipline and not to discipline a child when angry
    ● support schools to nurture attitudes that reject violence and promote non-violent conflict resolution. This can involve changing classroom management (traditionally based on fear, threats, humiliation and physical punishment) to a child-friendly approach that is non-discriminatory and supports cooperative learning
    ● sponsor public campaigns to stop corporal punishment, abuse and harmful practices such as child marriage and genital mutilation/cutting
    ● provide children affected by violence with health and social services to help them reintegrate into their families and communities
    ● establish safe ways for children to report violence against them, such as telephone hotlines or accessible social protection centres.


    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

    Ramesh

  4. #4
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Child Protection

    Very useful sharing Ramesh

    rameshshan and sumitra like this.
    Jayanthy





  5. #5
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Child Protection

    4. Children must be protected from all work that is hazardous. Work should not prevent them from attending school. Children should never be involved in the worst forms of child labour, such as slavery, forced labour, drug production or trafficking.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION
    Children who work often do so to support their families’ livelihood so they can eat and have basic necessities. Many children begin working at an early age, as young as 4 years old. In many cases, it is considered normal for children to work long hours before or after school, or to work all day and evening and not attend school at all.

    Children can be found working in agriculture, commerce, factories, fishing, markets, housekeeping, childcare, handicrafts, restaurants, garbage dumps and in the streets.

    Close to 70 per cent of working children work in agriculture, which can be extremely hazardous. It can involve heavy manual labour, long hours, and the use of pesticides and dangerous tools. Children can be at risk of sexual abuse and exploitation, especially during harvesting season (when they often work extra-long hours) and while working on plantations.

    Some children are engaged in the worst forms of child labour, such as child slavery, debt bondage, forced labour, drug production and trafficking. These are illegal. Children must be removed immediately from such situations and, if it is in their best interest, reintegrated into their families and communities.

    The work children do should not be hazardous to their health or well-being. It should not prevent children from going to school.

    The government and local authorities, with support from families and civil society, should develop measures to address harmful child labour situations, such as:

    ● identifying and communicating to the general public the different forms of harmful child labour found in the community and the forms children might encounter if they migrate
    ● identifying and removing children from harmful child labour
    ● helping children removed from harmful child labour who live away from their families to reintegrate into their family and community, if it is in their best interest
    ● ensuring that all children in the community attend a child-friendly school full-time and receive an education that is of good quality, equal for all children and free from violence
    ● providing income support and/or social welfare services to families who need them, so they are less reliant on their children’s income and can send them to school.


    Families need to know the risks involved in sending their children away for work, such as domestic and agricultural work.

    Children and adolescents should be well informed about the dangers of leaving home and taking work that might land them in high-risk situations such as prostitution and drug trafficking.


    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

    Ramesh

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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Child Protection

    Thank you sir for sharing with us the very useful information!

    rameshshan likes this.

  7. #7
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Child Protection

    Quote Originally Posted by sumitra View Post
    Thank you sir for sharing with us the very useful information!
    My pleasure...pls do visit 'Meipporul' other parts which u can find in 'Newborn and Infants' forum.

    It is a world wide concept and established by UNESCO,WHO and UNICEF combined for the welfare of Women and children.


    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

    Ramesh

  8. #8
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Child Protection

    பகிர்விற்கு நன்றி அண்ணா

    rameshshan likes this.
    வாழ்க்கையில் ரெண்டு விஷயத்த எப்பவும் மறக்க கூடாது

    1. விரும்பி எது வந்தாலும் "TAKE CARE"
    2. விலகி எது சென்றாலும்
    " DON'T CARE"

  9. #9
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Child Protection

    5. Girls and boys can be at risk of sexual abuse and exploitation in their home, school, workplace or community. Measures should be taken to prevent sexual abuse and exploitation. Sexually abused and exploited children need immediate help to stop such abuse.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION
    Children need to be protected from all forms of sexual abuse and sexual exploitation.

    Most children who are sexually abused know their abusers. Most abusers are relatives or acquaintances of the child. A much smaller percentage of offenders are strangers. Most child sexual abuse is committed by men. Whatever the case, sexual abuse or exploitation is never the child’s fault. The responsibility always lies with the abuser.

    Every person has a unique reaction to sexual abuse or sexual exploitation, regardless of the type, extent or duration. Victims may show a range of emotional responses such as calm, anger, indifference or shock.

    Some children may be exposed to life-threatening situations, such as sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Girls may face the added risk of early and unwanted pregnancies that endanger their lives and can subject them to stigma and discrimination.

    Children can begin to learn early on about ‘good’ touch versus ‘bad’ touch. Children can also be taught to tell an adult they trust if they have experienced a ‘bad’ touch. If a child comes to an adult with such information, the adult must take the child’s claims seriously and immediately ensure that the abuse stops. The abuse should be reported to the authorities, and the child should receive protection services.

    Many children and young people who have been victims of sexual abuse or exploitation heal and go on to lead normal lives. Sexual abuse in childhood does not automatically lead to sexually aggressive behaviour. Most sexual offenders have not been sexually abused as children, and most children who are sexually abused do not abuse others.

    Governments are responsible for ensuring that systems and specific measures are in place to:

    ● prevent child abuse, violence and exploitation
    ● enable children to report abuse and exploitation
    ● make sure perpetrators of sexual abuse and exploitation are dealt with to the full extent of the law
    ● make social services, such as health care, psychosocial support, temporary care, education and legal assistance, timely and available for children who have been abused and exploited.


    gkarti likes this.
    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

    Ramesh

  10. #10
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Child Protection

    6. Children are vulnerable to trafficking where protection for children is weak or missing. The government, civil society and families are responsible for preventing trafficking, as well as helping children who are victims to reintegrate into their families and communities, if it is in their best interest.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION
    Trafficking of children is one of the fastest growing transnational crimes, occurring in and between countries. Profit from human trafficking has been estimated at approximately US$9.5 billion annually.

    Children who are trafficked are:

    ● treated as commodities
    ● subject to violence, abuse, neglect, exploitation and HIV infection.

    It is calculated that the majority of the children trafficked every year are girls who are sexually exploited.

    Children and families burdened by poverty and with limited access to information may leave their communities because they believe better opportunities await them elsewhere. Sometimes children are promised a good education, a well-paying job or a better life. Instead they may find themselves smuggled or moved across borders or taken within their own country by traffickers and forced into dangerous situations. These may include domestic servitude, prostitution, forced marriage or begging.

    It is important for children and families choosing to leave their communities to understand where they are going. They should know:

    ● what they can expect
    ● potential risks involved during travel as well as at the destination
    ● what to do if they get into a trafficking situation.


    Governments can support local authorities and civil society to:

    ● distribute information to parents and children on the risks of migration and sending children away to work
    ● distribute information to communities on how negative attitudes towards migrant children can lead to social acceptance of child trafficking or indifference to it
    ● gain parental support to keep children in school and not allow them to drop out for work
    ● provide social services as needed to help reduce parents’ dependence on their children’s income or work
    ● address and reduce domestic violence, which can influence a child’s decision to leave home
    ● treat children as victims of crime and not as criminals, and provide them with support and the time they need to recover before returning them to their families and communities or alternative care
    ● make and enforce laws that prosecute traffickers.


    gkarti likes this.
    "Don't be Serious, be Sincere."!!

    Ramesh

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