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மெய்ப்பொருள் - Child Injury Prevention


Discussions on "மெய்ப்பொருள் - Child Injury Prevention" in "Newborn and Infants" forum.


  1. #1
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    மெய்ப்பொருள் - Child Injury Prevention

    1. Many serious injuries can be prevented if parents and other caregivers supervise children carefully and keep their environment safe.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION
    Young children, especially as they begin to move around on their own – and particularly between 12 months and 4 years old – are at high risk of injuries in and near the home. Almost all these injuries can be prevented. Prevention requires supervising children carefully and keeping them away from dangers, such as cooking fires, water sources, places where they can fall, roads, and items that can poison, choke or hurt them.


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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Child Injury Prevention

    2. Young children are at risk on or near the roads. They should not play on or near the road and should always have someone older with them when they are near or crossing a road. They should wear a helmet when on a bicycle or motorcycle and should be securely strapped into an age-appropriate child restraint when being transported in a vehicle.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION
    Children may be hurt when they are crossing or walking along roads, or if they play near roads. Young children do not think before they run onto the road.

    Families need to:

    ● watch children carefully
    ● fence the house and close the gate to prevent young children from running onto the road
    ● teach young children never to cross or walk along a road unless accompanied by an adult or older child
    ● prevent children from playing near the road
    ● teach children not to run after balls, moving toys or kites that go on or near the road
    ● instruct children to walk on the side of the road, facing traffic
    ● if there is a sidewalk, teach children to use it rather than walk on the road.


    When crossing the road, young children should be taught to:


    ● stop at the side of the road
    ● look both ways
    ● listen for cars or other vehicles before crossing
    ● hold the hand of another person
    ● walk, not run
    ● in urban areas, use pedestrian crossings
    ● avoid crossing the road at a curve or between parked cars
    ● avoid crossing roads with high-speed traffic.

    Children are also at high risk of serious injury if they travel in the front seat of a car, unsupervised on the bed of a truck or agricultural machinery, or on a motorcycle.

    In a car, children should use an age-appropriate child restraint or a booster seat until they are 150 centimetres tall or 10 years old, when they are big enough to use an adult seat belt.

    While travelling with parents or other caregivers on a motorbike, all passengers, including children, should wear a helmet that is securely strapped under the chin so it cannot come off in case of an accident.

    Bicycle accidents are a frequent cause of injury and death among children. All children should learn road safety and wear a bicycle helmet when riding a bike.


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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Child Injury Prevention

    3. Children can drown in less than two minutes and in a very small amount of water, even in a bathtub. They should never be left alone in or near water.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION
    Drowning may cause brain injury or death. To prevent children from drowning, parents and other caregivers should always closely supervise children who are near or in the water.’

    Where there is water, it is important to:

    ● cover wells and water tanks so children cannot open them
    ● turn tubs and buckets upside down when not in use, and always supervise children taking a bath
    ● teach children to stay away from ditches and drains
    ● for families who live near bodies of water, install a fence around the house and close the gates to prevent young children from going in the water
    ● fence ponds and pools with vertical rails spaced close together to prevent children from getting through them to the water
    ● for families who live directly on the water, put vertical bars on terraces, windows and doors to prevent young children from falling in the water
    ● teach children how to swim when they are young
    ● have young children and children who cannot swim wear an approved flotation device (life jacket) when playing in the water or on a boat
    ● always supervise children who are swimming
    ● teach children never to swim in fast-flowing streams and never to swim alone
    ● in flood-prone areas, carefully watch children when the water begins to rise; make sure that all family members, including children old enough to understand, are well informed of safe places to go to if they need to leave the home quickly.


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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Child Injury Prevention

    4. Burns can be prevented by keeping children away from fires, cooking stoves, hot liquids and foods, and exposed electric wires.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION
    Burning and scalding are among the most common causes of serious injury among young children. Burns often cause permanent scarring, and some are fatal. The great majority of these are preventable.

    One of the most common types of burns is from direct contact with fires or flames or touching hot surfaces. To prevent this kind of burn:

    ● keep young children away from cooking fires, matches, paraffin lamps, candles and flammable liquids such as paraffin and kerosene
    ● put stoves on a flat, raised surface out of the reach of children
    ● if an open cooking fire is used, make it on a raised mound of clay, not directly on the ground. A barrier of mud, bamboo or other material or a playpen can also be used to keep young children out of reach of the cooking
    place.
    ● do not leave small children alone near fires or to tend fires or cook
    ● keep children away from heaters, hot irons and other hot appliances
    ● never leave a child alone in a room with a candle or fire burning.


    Another major cause of burns is scalding from hot liquids or foods. To prevent scalds:

    ● turn the handles of all cooking pots away from the reach of children
    ● keep hot foods and liquids in a safe place and out of children’s reach
    ● do not let children turn on the hot water tap in a bath or shower by themselves
    ● keep the temperature of water heaters below a medium setting to prevent scalding if children turn on the hot water
    ● teach children not to play rough around people with hot drinks or in the kitchen when meals are being prepared
    ● never hold a child when having hot liquids or foods.

    Children can get a serious shock or burn if they come in contact with electricity. To prevent shocks and burns:

    ● teach children never to put their fingers or other objects into electric sockets
    ● cover power sockets to prevent access
    ● keep electric wires out of children’s reach
    ● cover bare electric wires, which are particularly dangerous, using insulating tape.


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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Child Injury Prevention

    5. Falls are a major cause of injury for young children. Stairs, balconies, roofs, windows, and play and sleeping areas should be made secure, using barriers with vertical bars to protect children from falling.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION
    Children often fall as they learn to walk, run and jump. Many of these falls cause small scrapes and bruises. Sometimes falls can cause broken bones, head injuries or other serious injuries, even death.

    Infants left unattended may fall from beds, cots or hammocks. Young children may fall down stairs or from windows or balconies.

    Children like to climb. They can be seriously injured if they fall from a high place or try to climb up on top of heavy furniture that might fall on them.

    In addition to supervision, some steps to prevent children from serious falls include:

    ● discourage and prevent children from climbing onto unsafe places
    ● do not allow children to play on stairs and balconies, and, if they do, watch them closely
    ● use railings of appropriate width and height with vertical bars on stairs, windows
    or balconies
    ● keep the home clean, well lit and free of sharp objects and rough edges
    ● properly secure babies in high chairs
    ● do not leave infants unattended on beds, cots, hammocks or in walkers or other baby equipment
    ● keep furniture such as beds, chairs and cribs away from windows
    ● do not put toys or other items on high shelves that may attract small children, and fasten heavy furniture such as cabinets or shelves to the wall.

    Moderator Note:

    This Article has been published in Penmai eMagazine Oct 2016. You Can download & Read the magazines HERE.

    Last edited by sumathisrini; 24th Mar 2017 at 02:42 PM.
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Child Injury Prevention

    6. Medicines, poisons, insecticides, bleach, acids and liquid fertilizers and fuels, such as paraffin (kerosene), should be stored carefully out of children’s sight and reach. Dangerous substances should be stored in clearly marked containers and never in drinking bottles. Child-resistant closures, where available, should be used on the containers of poisonous products.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION
    Poisoning is a serious danger to small children. Bleach, insect and rat poison, paraffin (kerosene) and household detergents can kill or permanently injure a child.

    Many poisons can kill, cause brain damage, blind or permanently injure if they:

    ● are swallowed
    ● are inhaled
    ● get onto the skin
    ● get into the eyes.

    The key to preventing poisoning is to keep harmful substances out of children’s reach.

    ● Poisons should never be put in soft drink or beer bottles, jars or cups, as children may drink them by mistake. All medicines, chemicals and poisons should be stored in their original containers, tightly sealed and out of children’s reach.
    ● Detergents, bleaches, chemicals and medicines should never be left where children can reach them. They should be tightly sealed and labelled. They should also be locked in a cupboard or trunk or put on a high shelf where children cannot see or reach them.
    ● Medicines meant for adults can kill or injure small children. Medicine should only be given to a child if it is prescribed for that child. It should never be given to a child if it is prescribed for an adult or some other child. A child should never take medication on his or her own. The parent or other caregiver should give the medication to the child each time it is needed. Medication should be stored out of reach and sight of children.
    ● Child-resistant closures, where available, should be used on containers storing poisonous substances.

    Moderator Note:

    This Article has been published in Penmai eMagazine Nov 2016. You Can download & Read the magazines HERE.

    Last edited by sumathisrini; 21st Mar 2017 at 02:30 PM.
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Child Injury Prevention

    7. Knives, scissors, sharp or pointed objects and broken glass can cause serious injuries. These objects should be kept out of children’s reach. Plastic bags, which can cause suffocation, should be kept away from young children.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION
    Broken glass can cause serious cuts, loss of blood and infected wounds. Sharp metal objects, machinery and rusty cans can cause wounds that can become badly infected.

    Families can reduce the risk of children’s injuries from glass and sharp objects if they:

    ● keep glass bottles out of reach of young children and keep the house and play area free of broken glass and refuse
    ● place knives, razors and scissors in drawers or locked cabinets well out of reach of young children
    ● safely dispose of household refuse, including broken bottles and old cans.

    Other injuries around the home can be prevented by teaching children about the dangers of throwing stones or other sharp objects and of playing with knives or scissors.

    Plastic bags should be kept away from young children to prevent suffocation.

    Moderator Note:

    This Article has been published in Penmai eMagazine Dec 2016. You Can download & Read the magazines HERE.

    Last edited by sumathisrini; 19th Mar 2017 at 01:54 PM.
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Child Injury Prevention

    8. Young children like to put things in their mouths. To prevent choking, small objects, such as coins, nuts and buttons, should be kept out of their reach. Children’s foods should be cut into small pieces that can be easily chewed and swallowed.

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION
    One way young children explore their environment is by putting things in their mouths which might cause them to choke. Also, young children have difficulty chewing and swallowing some foods such as hard sweets that can cause them to choke.

    Parents or other caregivers should:

    ● keep play and sleeping areas free of small objects such as buttons, beads, balloons, pen caps, coins, seeds and nuts
    ● check new toys carefully before children play with them to make sure they have no loose or sharp pieces that could break and be swallowed by or hurt the child
    ● never give young children foods they can choke on such as groundnuts (peanuts), hard sweets or food with small bones or seeds
    ● always supervise young children during meals, and cut or tear children’s food into small pieces that can be easily chewed or swallowed.

    Coughing, gagging and high-pitched, noisy breathing or the inability to make any sound at all indicate breathing difficulty and possible choking. Parents and other caregivers should suspect a child is choking when he or she suddenly has trouble breathing, even if no one has seen the child put something into the mouth.

    Moderator Note:

    This Article has been published in Penmai eMagazine Jan 2017. You Can download & Read the magazines HERE.



    Last edited by sumathisrini; 18th Mar 2017 at 02:18 PM.
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Child Injury Prevention

    FIRST AID ADVICE

    First aid for burns:
    ● If the child's clothing catches fire, quickly wrap the child in a blanket or clothing or roll him or her on the ground to put out the fire.
    For minor burns, the following steps can be taken: ● Cool the burned area immediately. Use plenty of cold, clean water, which helps to reduce pain and swelling. Do not put ice on the burn; this can further damage the skin.
    ● Keep the burn clean and dry with a loose sterile gauze bandage or clean cloth. This will protect blistered skin.
    ● Do not break blisters, as they protect the injured area. If a blister is broken, the area is more susceptible to infection. Do not apply butter or ointments to the burn; they can prevent proper healing.
    ● A minor burn will usually heal without further treatment.
    For major burns that burn all layers of skin, emergency care is needed immediately. Until it is available, the following steps can be taken:
    ● Do not remove the burned clothing from the body. Make sure the child is no longer near any burning or smouldering materials or exposed to smoke or heat.
    ● Do not immerse large, serious burns in cold water, as this could cause shock.
    ● Raise the burned body part or parts above heart level, if possible.
    ● Loosely cover the burn area with cool, moist towels or cloths or a sterile bandage.
    ● If the child is unconscious, keep him or her warm. Roll the child onto his or her side so that the tongue does not block breathing.
    ● Check for signs of breathing, movement and coughing. If there are no signs, follow the steps under ‘First aid for breathing problems or drowning’.

    Moderator Note:

    This Article has been published in Penmai eMagazine Feb 2017. You Can download & Read the magazines HERE.


    Last edited by sumathisrini; 14th Mar 2017 at 02:56 PM.
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    Re: மெய்ப்பொருள் - Child Injury Prevention

    First aid for broken bones, bruises or sprains:
    ● A child who is unable to move or is in extreme pain may have broken bones. Do not move the injured area and get medical help immediately.
    ● For bad bruises and sprains, immerse the injured area in cold water or put ice on the injury for 15 minutes. Do not put the ice directly on the skin; use a layer of cloth between the ice and the skin. Remove the ice or water, wait 15 minutes and repeat, if necessary. The cold should help reduce pain, swelling and bruising.
    First aid for cuts and wounds:
    For minor cuts and wounds:
    ● Wash the wound with clean (or boiled and cooled) water and soap.
    ● Dry the skin around the wound.
    ● Cover the wound with a clean cloth and place a sterile bandage over it.

    For serious cuts and wounds:
    ● If a piece of glass or other object is sticking in the wound, do not remove it. It may be preventing further bleeding, and removing it could make the injury worse.
    ● If the child is bleeding heavily, raise the injured area above the level of the chest and press firmly against the wound (or near it if something is stuck in it) with a pad made of folded clean cloth. Maintain pressure until the bleeding stops.
    ● Do not put any plant or animal matter on the wound, as this could cause infection.
    ● Put a clean sterile bandage on the wound. Allow for swelling by not tying the bandage too tightly.
    ● Seek medical help immediately. Ask a trained health worker if the child should have a tetanus injection.

    Moderator Note:

    This Article has been published in Penmai eMagazine March 2017. You Can download & Read the magazines HERE.


    Last edited by sumathisrini; 16th Mar 2017 at 02:36 PM.
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