Health Bulletin

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#1
New protein jab could fight arthritis pain: Study

Researchers claim to have developed a potential new gene therapy technique for arthritis, paving way for a jab that could protect joints from wear and tear.

Scientists led by Brendan Lee, professor of molecular and human genetics at Baylor College of Medicine unravel the effects of a naturally occurring protein called lubricin or Proteoglycans 4 that protects against aging as well as helping with post-injury related changes.

"This protein also affects the metabolism of the cartilage and does it in a way that prevents its breakdown," said Lee. Merry ZC Ruan, in Lee's laboratory, developed a special imaging technique called phase contrast ultra-high resolution micro-computed tomography that allowed them to "see" the tiny cartilage in the knee joint and quantify that amount in the mouse joint.

To identify new targets for treating osteoarthritis, they focused on a genetic disease in which the disorder starts early in children. These individuals are deficient in lubricin. They then studied mice that produced higher levels lubricin and found that its increased amounts was not harmful.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#2
Less shut-eye increases risk of heart disease, diabetes

Late to bed and early to rise could well be the New Age recipe for heart disease. It is no longer only what you eat and drink that determines your health. Sleep deprivation is also emerging as a key reason for heart and other lifestyle ailments.

According to studies, almost 15% of adults in Asian countries suffer from sleep-related problems, which can give rise to several psychological and physiological changes, besides increasing the risk of developing hypertension, type II diabetes and increased body weight.

An international study published in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine proved that obstructive sleep apnea represents a stress that promotes insulin resistance and hence narrows blood vessels. In another study published in a journal of the American Heart Association, researchers from the University of Sao Paulo Medical School, found that sleep apnea is an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis or hardening of arteries. Thus, those suffering from sleep apnea have an increased risk for stroke, heart attack and peripheral vascular disease.

However, more Indians, especially men, suffer from sleep related disorders than their western counterparts. "Though obesity is a major risk factor when it comes to sleep apnea, it is still higher amongst men in the US," said Dr Zarir Udwadia, chest physician at PD Hinduja Hospital, who had conducted a study in 2000 and found that 9-10% Indian urban men suffer from sleep related disorders. "The facial structure of Indians is such that the nose is generally a little flatter and may cause problems in breathing. Though these are our findings, but research is still being done on the subject to confirm the same," said Dr Udwadia.

Psychiatrists say that lack of sleep can also lead to a series of psychosomatic problems. Psychiatrist Dr Harish Shetty said, "Lack of sleep can lead to irritability, anger and sadness." But chronic lack of sleep can lead to much worse problems. "The constant lack of sleep over a period of time leads to lack of co-ordination between brain and the rest of the body. Since the neuro-endocrinological system goes haywire, there is an increase in the steroid levels in the brain. This can also lead to hormonal imbalance and depression," he said.

The right sleeping conditions

* Keep your room cool, dark and quiet.

* room temperature should be between 20°C and 25°C and with a humidity level between 60% and 70%.

* It is important to choose sleeping clothes that keep your body warm but do not overheat it.

* You will fall asleep more easily if you follow a regular bedtime routine. This routine should include quiet, non-stimulating activities.

* Various habits like taking a warm bath, reading, turning down the lights, playing music quietly, that assist sleep.

Risks of sleeping less: Inadequate sleep can cause hypertension, increase in blood pressure and sugar levels, heart attacks, depression apart from irritability, lethargy, anger and sadness.

Ideal sleeping hours

Age------- hours

Newborns (0-2 months)--- 12-18

Infants (3 to 11 months)--- 14 to 15 hours

Toddlers (1-3 years)--- 12-14 hours

Pre-schoolers (3-5 years)--- 11-13 hours

Primary school students (5-10 years)--- 10-11 hours

Teenagerss (10-17 years)--- 8.5-9.25 hours

Adults----------------- 7-9 hours

Senior citizens-- 7-9 hours with gaps

(Source: National Sleep Foundation)
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#4
Low on iron due to diet, deprivation

Anaemia doesn't just affect the lower socio-economic strata, many women from higher income groups are also afflicted, say doctors. The reasons however, differ drastically. "While women from lower economic groups do not have adequate nourishment, those from affluent backgrounds have low haemoglobin levels as they are either dieting or eating more of junk food
. "Junk food is not a great source of iron. Women who diet to lose weight lose out on iron as well,", adding severe anaemia afflicts more women in the lower economic strata.

Anaemia is a condition in which the number of red blood cells or their oxygen-carrying capacity is insufficient to meet physiologic needs, which vary according to age, sex, altitude, smoking and pregnancy status. A person is considered anaemic if the haemoglobin falls below 13.5gm/100 in men and below 12gm/100 ml in women. For Indian women, even 11gm/100 ml is considered normal

Cause:
Iron deficiency is thought to be the most common cause of anaemia globally, although other conditions, such as folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin A deficiencies, chronic inflammation, parasitic infections, and inherited disorders can all cause anaemia

Symptoms:
In its severe form, it is associated with fatigue, weakness, dizziness and drowsiness. Pregnant women and children are particularly vulnerable
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#5
A 'functional cure' for AIDS found
Treating people with HIV rapidly after they have become infected with the virus that causes AIDS may be enough to achieve a "functional cure" in a small proportion of patients diagnosed early, according to new research.

Scientists in France who followed 14 patients who were treated very swiftly with HIV drugs but then stopped treatment found that even when they had been off therapy for more than seven years, they still showed no signs of the virus rebounding. The research, published in the journal PLoS Pathogens, follows news earlier this month about a baby girl in Mississippi in the US being effectively cured of the HIV after receiving very early treatment.

Christine Rouzioux, a professor at Necker Hospital and University Paris Descartes and a member of the initial team who identified HIV 30 years ago, said the new results showed the number of infected cells circulating in the blood of these patients, known as "post-treatment controllers", kept falling even without treatment for many years.

"Early treatment in these patients may have limited the establishment of viral reservoirs, the extent of viral mutations, and preserved immune responses. A combination of those may contribute to control infection in post-treatment controllers," she said.

"The shrinking of viral reservoirs ... closely matches the definition of 'functional' cure," she said. A functional cure describes when the virus is reduced to such low levels that it is kept at bay even without continuing treatment. The virus, however, is still detectable in the body.

Most of the some 34 million people with HIV across the world will have to take anti-AIDS drugs known as antiretroviral therapy for the whole of their lives. These drugs generally keep the disease in check but also have side effects and a high cost impact on health systems.

Worldwide, the number of people newly infected with HIV, which can be transmitted via blood and by semen during sex, is falling.

At 2.5 million, the number of new infections in 2011 was 20% lower than in 2001, according to the United National AIDS programme ( UNAIDS). And deaths from AIDS fell to 1.7 million in 2011, down from a peak of 2.3 million in 2005.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#6
When exercise stresses you out

Scientists at the Centre for Neuroscience at the University of Colorado at Boulder recently decided to study the emotional effects of forced and voluntary exercise on anxiety and emotional resilience.

They began by gathering a group of healthy adult male rats of a type that generally enjoys running . Then they gave some of the animals access to unlocked running wheels and let them exercise whenever and for as long as they liked.

The exercise was fully under the animals' control.

Having determined how the animals spontaneously liked to run, the researchers next placed other rats in mechanised, lockable wheels that were controlled exclusively by the scientists.

The scientists then forced these rats to run. To the extent possible, the researchers mimicked the animals' normal, spontaneous exercise pattern, having the rats run during the portion of the day when they naturally would be active and creating frequent stops and starts in their running, just as the rats that ran freely had done.

The animals' daily mileage was equivalent to that of the voluntary runners. Meanwhile, a third group of rats ran on little mechanised treadmills, at a steady, even pace, without fits and starts of voluntary running. The animals could not control their speed or distance. A final group remained sedentary. All of the animals exercised, or lounged, for six weeks. The next day, the animals were placed in a large, unfamiliar maze-like cage designed to determine their levels of anxiety or confidence. If they froze or scurried to the darkest corners of the cage and refused to explore, they were considered to be highly anxious and unsettled.

The treadmill runners and the sedentary animals were, the results showed, extremely anxious. They froze or ran for the darkness at the first opportunity . But the animals that had exercised on the running wheels, whether they could control their exercise regimens or not, proved to be quite resilient. They bounced back emotionally from the imposed stresses and were willing to explore the lighted regions of their new surroundings on the next day.

What this suggests, says Benjamin Greenwood, a professor of integrative physiology at the University of Colorado who designed and led the study, is that "even forced exercise increases stress resistance ." If, in other words, you are being cajoled to exercise, whether by your conscience, your partner or some other overriding force, you nevertheless are likely to wind up feeling less anxious, more relaxed and happier afterward, even if you're not having fun during the workout.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#7
Belly fat linked to colon cancer

Visceral fat, or fat stored deep in the abdominal cavity, can put a person at an increased risk for colon cancer, according to a new study.


"There has been some skepticism as to whether obesity per se is a bona fide cancer risk factor, rather than the habits that fuel it, including a poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle," said Derek M. Huffman, Ph.D., postdoctoral fellow at the Institute for Aging Research at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in Bronx, N.Y.

"Although those other lifestyle choices play a role, this study unequivocally demonstrates that visceral adiposity is causally linked to intestinal cancer."

Prior research has shown that obesity markedly increases the likelihood of being diagnosed with and dying from many cancers. Huffman and colleagues sought to determine if removing visceral fat in mice genetically prone to developing colon cancer might prevent or lessen the development of these tumors.

They randomly assigned the mice to one of three groups. Mice in the first group underwent a sham surgery and were allowed to eat an unrestricted "buffet style" diet, for the entirety of the study, which resulted in these mice becoming obese. Those in the second group were also provided an unrestricted diet and became obese, but they had their visceral fat surgically removed at the outset of the study. Mice in the third group also underwent a sham surgery, but were provided only 60 per cent of the calories consumed by the other mice in order to reduce their visceral fat by dieting.

"Our sham-operated obese mice had the most visceral fat, developed the greatest number of intestinal tumors, and had the worst overall survival," Huffman said.

"However, mice that had less visceral fat, either by surgical removal or a calorie-restricted diet, had a reduction in the number of intestinal tumors. This was particularly remarkable in the case of our group where visceral fat was surgically removed, because these mice were still obese, they just had very little abdominal fat."

The researchers then subdivided the groups by gender. In female mice, the removal of visceral fat was significantly related to a reduction in intestinal tumors, but calorie restriction was not. In male mice, calorie restriction had a significant effect on intestinal tumors, but removal of visceral fat did not.

"This suggests that there are important gender differences in how adiposity and nutrients interact with the tumor environment," Huffman said. "In addition, the study emphasizes the need to promote strategies that reduce visceral fat in abdominally obese individuals."

The study has been published in Cancer Prevention Research.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#8
Liver kept alive outside body and fit for transplantation too

A human liver can now be kept "warm, alive and functioning" outside the human body for it to be transplanted into a new patient.

In a world's first, scientists from Oxford University and doctors from King's College Hospital have successfully "kept alive" a donated human liver outside a human being and then successfully transplanted it into a patient in need of a new liver.

Currently, transplantation depends on preserving donor organs by putting them 'on ice' — cooling them to slow their metabolism. But this often leads to organs becoming damaged.

So far the procedure, which will be a major boon for countries like India that already face an acute shortage of donor livers for transplantation, has been performed on two patients; both are making excellent recoveries.

The innovation is a machine developed over 15 years at Oxford University that can preserve a functioning liver outside the body for 24 hours.

A donated human liver connected to the device is raised to body temperature and oxygenated red blood cells are circulated through its capillaries. Once on the machine, a liver functions normally just as it would inside a human body, regaining its colour and producing bile.

Based on pre-clinical data, the team says the new device will lead to better preservation of livers that would otherwise be discarded as unfit for transplantation — potentially as much as doubling the number of organs available for transplant and prolonging the maximum period of organ preservation to 24 hours.

"If we can introduce technology like this into everyday practice, it could be a real, bona fide game changer for transplantation as we know it," says professor Nigel Heaton, director of transplant surgery at King's College Hospital. "Buying the surgeon extra time extends the options open to our patients, many of whom would otherwise die waiting for an organ to become available."

Dr Wayel Jassem, liver transplant surgeon at King's College Hospital, who performed both transplant operations, says: "There is always huge pressure to get a donated liver to the right person within a very short space of time. For the first time, we now have a device that is designed specifically to give us extra time to test the liver, to help maximise the chances of the recipient having a successful outcome. This technology has the potential to be hugely significant, and could make more livers available for transplant, and in turn save lives."

In Europe and the US, about 13,000 liver transplants are undertaken each year. But there is a combined waiting list of about 30,000 patients, and up to 25% of these die while awaiting transplantation.

Meanwhile, over 2,000 livers are discarded annually because they are either damaged by oxygen deprivation or do not survive cold preservation due to elevated intracellular fat.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#9
‘Herbal medicines causing kidney failure, bladder cancer in India’

Herbal medicines are causing millions in India to develop kidney failure and bladder cancer.

In a warning that is bound to cause a fresh row over the quality of Asian herbal medicines, British scientists were due to announce on Tuesday that millions of people in Asia — specially in India and China — might be exposed to the risk of kidney failure and bladder cancer from taking herbal medicines widely available in the continent.

Scientists from King's College London have found that many herbal medicines used for a wide range of conditions — including slimming, asthma and arthritis — are derived from a botanical compound containing aristolochic acids. These products are now banned in the US and many European countries, but herbs containing these toxic acids can still be bought in China and other countries in Asia, and are also available worldwide over the internet.

The scientists reviewed worldwide cases of aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), a type of kidney failure caused by the intake of these acids. They suggest there may be many thousands of cases across Asia that are undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. With the outcome of their study, the researchers hope to raise awareness of the risks of aristolochic acids and reduce the global disease burden from this severe condition.

"We do know that preparations containing aristolochic acid (AA) are widely used in India and that this is associated with chronic kidney disease and kidney cancer if a sufficient dose is taken," lead author Professor Graham Lord told TOI. "Ethnopharmacological analyses suggest that aristolochia is widely used in India. India must start better monitoring of medicines containing herbal remedies and also assessment of patients with chronic kidney disease and kidney cancer for the presence of AA."

Lord said at the moment they did not how widespread the problem was in India. "We have found evidence that many millions of people continue to be exposed to significant health risk due to these herbal medicines, widely used in China and India," he said. "There is also a striking lack of good quality evidence that might help guide the diagnosis and management of AAN."

Their paper, published in "Annals of Internal Medicine", indicates that the regulatory measures that have been adopted by national and international agencies so far may be inadequate in preventing harmful exposure to aristolochic acids.

The compound is linked to many cases of kidney diseases and urothelial cancer, a form of cancer of which bladder cancer is the most known variant.

The authors reviewed the latest data on the epidemiology of AAN. They used several search engines to include all publications that are about or refer to aristolochic acids and Chinese herbal nephropathy, and identified 42 different case studies and one trial relating to the management of the disease.

While explaining the origin and development of the disease, they propose a protocol that should make it easier to diagnose AAN. In addition, they suggest a new disease classification to help international clinicians better identify AAN patients and draft guidelines for the treatment of these patients.

The research team consisted of an international collaboration of scientists from Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany and the UK. "This research is a great demonstration of how international scientific collaboration is vital in helping to describe how a toxin used in widely available products can lead to cancer," said Dr Refik Gokmen, co-author from King's College London.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#10
Swine flu virus getting resistant to Tamiflu?

Swine flu virus may be now resistant to key medicine Tamiflu, raising fears a new outbreak may be difficult to fight, Australian research has warned. While just 2% of swine flu (H1N1) strains around the world are resistant to Tamiflu, the researchers found mutations in all strains of the swine flu that suggest they might be prone to develop resistance. They found that one in five cases of swine flu in an area of Australia in 2011 were resistant to the medicine.

Dr Aeron Hurt from the WHO centre in Melbourne, said the bug appears more prone than other types of flu to developing drug resistance, The Australian said. Tamiflu resistance develops when a patient under treatment receives the drug to control their symptoms. In most flu viruses, the changes that make the virus resistant also make it less likely to spread to others. With swine flu, this has not happened and the virus remains fit enough to spread to others, Hurt said
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#11
Scientists develop new gel-based drug delivery system

Japanese scientists have developed a new drug-delivery gel that releases the drug in response to pressure applied by the patient, Science Daily reports.
A research group headed by Katsuhiko Ariga, principal investigator, Kohsaku Kawakami, scientist, and Hironori Izawa, a post-doctoral researcher (currently assistant professor, Tottori University) of the NIMS International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA) succeeded in developing a gel material which is capable of releasing drugs in response to pressure applied.

Drugs are generally taken by oral administration, injection, etc. However, the conventional methods may cause side effects and inconvenience. Although stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems are an effective technique that takes care of such problems, a special device is necessary in order to apply the stimulus.

The MANA research group developed a gel material envisioning a new drug administration method in which the drug is released when the patient applies manual pressure to the gel, reports Science Daily.

Using samples of the gel containing the anti-emetic drug ondansetron, the researchers confirmed that the drug was released when stimulus mimicking finger-pressure by the patient was applied, and found that this effect was maintained for at least three days.

Oral administration of drugs is difficult for patients experiencing nausea during cancer chemotherapy. If the material is introduced under the skin, it is expected to release the drug simply by pressing or rubbing it.

It will also be possible for patients to administer drugs under any environment at their own intention.

For relief from cancer pain, hay fever, or asthma, patients may need to administer drugs quickly. Those are among the situations when this material offers an extremely convenient new dosing strategy.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#12
Boiled Greek coffee may be key to longevity

When looking to discover the "secrets of a longer life" many scientists turn to the elderly inhabitants of Ikaria, the Greek island, that boast the highest rates of longevity in the world.

Now, researchers investigating cardiovascular health believe that a cup of boiled Greek coffee holds the clue to the elderly islanders' good health.

Only 0.1 per cent of Europeans live to be over 90, yet on the Greek island of Ikaria, the figure is 1 per cent. This is recognized as one of the highest longevity rates anywhere - and the islanders tend to live out their longer lives in good health.

Gerasimos Siasos, a medical doctor and professor at the University of Athens Medical School, Greece set out with his team to find out whether the elderly population's coffee drinking had an effect on their health.

In particular, the researchers investigated links between coffee-drinking habits and the subjects'' endothelial function. The endothelium is a layer of cells that lines blood vessels, which is affected both by aging and by lifestyle habits (such as smoking).

The team homed in on coffee because recent studies suggest that moderate coffee consumption may slightly reduce the risks of coronary heart disease, and that it may also have a positive impact on several aspects of endothelial health.

From a sample of 673 Ikarians aged over 65 who lived on the island permanently, the researchers randomly selected 71 men and 71 women to take part in the study. Medical staff used health checks (for high blood pressure, diabetes, etc.) and questionnaires to get more detail on the participants' medical health, lifestyles and coffee drinking, in addition to testing their endothelial function.

The researchers investigated all types of coffee taken by participants - but interestingly more than 87 per cent of those in the study consumed boiled, Greek coffee daily.

More importantly, subjects consuming mainly boiled Greek coffee had better endothelial function than those who consumed other types of coffee. Even in those with high blood pressure, boiled Greek coffee consumption was associated with improved endothelial function, without worrying impacts on blood pressure.

"Boiled Greek type of coffee, which is rich in polyphenols and antioxidants and contains only a moderate amount of caffeine, seems to gather benefits compared to other coffee beverages," Siasos said.

The new study provides a new connection between nutritional habits and cardiovascular health. Given the extent of coffee drinking across the world, and the fact that even small health effects of at least one type of coffee could have a large impact on public health, this study provides an interesting starting point.

However, further studies are needed to document the exact beneficial mechanisms of coffee on cardiovascular health, the researchers noted.

The new study appeared in Vascular Medicine, published by SAGE.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#13
Chewing gums ups junk food craving

Chewing gum may lead people to eat chips, cookies and candy instead of fruits and vegetables because menthol — the chemical which gives gum its mintyfresh flavour — makes fruits and vegetables taste bitter, according to a new study.

Some researchers have proposed that chewing gum could help people eat less and lead to weight loss, but the study, published in the journal Eating Behaviours, suggests that the chemical menthol in some types of gum makes fruits and vegetables taste funny. The chemical change is the same reason why "when you brush your teeth and then drink orange juice, it tastes bad," said study coauthor Christine Swoboda, a doctoral candidate in nutrition at Ohio State University.

Only a few studies have looked at whether chewing gum aids weight loss, and these have found conflicting results, Swoboda told Livescience.

It could be that the menthol in mint, which interacts with nutrients in fruits and veggies to create a bitter flavour, was turning people off to the healthy foods, she said.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#14
Statins in high doses can cause kidney injury

Patients taking high-potency statins for high blood pressure are at a 34% higher risk of being hospitalized for acute kidney injury compared with those taking low-potency ones.

With nearly 10 crore Indians suffering from high blood pressure, the use of statins is common in the country. Statins are often recommended to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease among high-risk patients. Nagging doubts have remained in the medical fraternity about whether statin therapy is specifically associated with greater adverse renal effects.

Researchers from across Canada recently carried out an analysis, comparing patients who were prescribed high-potency statins with those who were prescribed low-potency statins in seven provinces and two international databases (the UK and the US) between 1997 and 2008. The health records of 20 lakh Canadians were used for those with and without chronic kidney disease. Patients were aged 40 years and above.

Rosuvastatin (a statin) at doses of 10mg or more, atorvastatin at doses of 20mg or more, and simvastatin at doses of 40mg or more were defined as high potency and all others as low potency. They were categorised as high or low according to whether they would produce 45% or less reduction in LDL or bad cholesterol.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#15
Papaya could help combat world’s leading diseases

A group of students from University of Karachi has explored health benefits of papaya and discovered some facts about the delicious tropical fruit, including its usage in lowering chances of heart attack and controlling diabetes.


During the research, final year students of BS, Agriculture and Agribusiness Department, KU - Mariam Naseem and Muhammad Kamran Nasir - also discovered numerous advantages of papaya seeds.

Speaking to Pakistan Daily Times, Naseem explained that juice of papaya seeds is every essential to protect kidney from becoming dysfunctional because seeds contains flavonoids and phenotic, which provides prevention from germs of such diseases.

Besides this papaya seeds can also protect from number of infections and could also be used to clean intestines insects, she added.

She cited that in Nigeria, 76.7 per cent children got rid from intestines insects by drinking juice of papaya seeds in seven days.

People in Japan also believed that liver could be protected from diseases with usage of one teaspoon of papaya seeds, Naseem said.

It seeds can be used with milk to avoid typhoid disease and it can also cure from hemorrhoids-kind diseases. Papaya seeds also contain a special compound, which helps to stop formation of tumor, Naseem added.

Nasir, the other researcher, said papaya contain huge amount of vitamin C, potassium, calcium, iron, thiamin and magnesium.

He noted that enzyme papain in papaya gives relief from indigestion and gastric problems, and added that chemical integrate carpain in papaya also helped from some kind of diseases.

Besides papaya was also very useful to control or stop diabetes, Nasir said.

He asserted that cancer can be eradicated through daily intake of papaya, as it contains chemical integrates such as lycopene and others.

He further said that eating papaya daily could help reduce weight.

He advised that patients suffering from hypertension to include papaya in their daily diet. Papaya also reduces chance of heart attack, he added.

Nasir noted that papaya is also known as body cleaner as it helps to maintain internal body system at normal stage.

Vitamin A in papaya helps improve the eyesight vision. It also increases fertility power in male and female, he said.

Papaya helps to stop blood clothing in feet of people, who are in sedentary job while magnesium in papaya helps to eliminate face acnes. It also gives cure from soling on injuries.

In addition, papaya also eliminates nausea and constipation complaints and it also protect from formation of emphysema in body of those who are habitual of smoking, the researchers said.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#16
How yearning for lost love affects you

People suffering from complicated grief may have difficulty recalling specific events from their past or imagining specific events in the future, but not when those events involve the partner they lost.

This is the conclusion of a new study conducted by graduate student Donald Robinaugh and professor of psychology Richard McNally of Harvard University.

The death of a loved one is among the most painful and disruptive experiences a person can face. For most, the grief subsides over time. But those who suffer from complicated grief continue to yearn for the lost loved one, experience waves of painful emotion, and feel hopeless about the future.

Research suggests that that people who suffer from complicated grief, similar to those who suffer from post-trauamatic stress disorder or major depression, have difficulty recalling many of the specific memories of their past.

But there's an exception: They often retain their ability to recall specific memories for events that include the lost loved one.

Robinaugh and McNally were intrigued by this cognitive paradox, and it raised another question: Do thoughts of lost loved ones also shape how people with complicated grief think about the future?

To find out, the researchers recruited adults who had lost their spouse or life partner in the last one to three years. Some of the participants showed signs of complicated grief, while others showed signs of more typical bereavement.

The participants completed a series of tasks to assess their memory for past events and their ability to imagine future events, both with and without the deceased. They were asked to generate specific events based on positive cue words (e.g., safe, happy, successful, loved) and negative cue words (e.g., hurt, sad, afraid, angry).

Adults suffering from complicated grief showed deficits in their ability to recall specific autobiographical memories and to imagine specific events in the future compared to adults experiencing typical grief, but only for events that did not include the deceased. They showed no difficulty generating events that included the partner they had lost.

"Most striking to us was the ease with which individuals with complicated grief were able to imagine the future with the deceased relative to their difficulty imagining the future without the deceased," said Robinaugh and McNally.

"They frequently imagined landmark life events — such as the birth of their first child or a 50th wedding anniversary — that had long since become impossible. Yet, this impossible future was more readily imagined than one that could, at that point, realistically occur," they said.

These findings point to a cognitive mechanism underlying the distressed yearning that is characteristic of complicated grief.

The research also underscores the importance of generating goals and aspirations for the future after the loss of a loved one. According to the researchers, "setting goals and working toward them may be an important component of natural recovery from the disruptive and painful experience of loss."

The study was published in Clinical Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#17
How yearning for lost love affects you

People suffering from complicated grief may have difficulty recalling specific events from their past or imagining specific events in the future, but not when those events involve the partner they lost.

This is the conclusion of a new study conducted by graduate student Donald Robinaugh and professor of psychology Richard McNally of Harvard University.

The death of a loved one is among the most painful and disruptive experiences a person can face. For most, the grief subsides over time. But those who suffer from complicated grief continue to yearn for the lost loved one, experience waves of painful emotion, and feel hopeless about the future.

Research suggests that that people who suffer from complicated grief, similar to those who suffer from post-trauamatic stress disorder or major depression, have difficulty recalling many of the specific memories of their past.

But there's an exception: They often retain their ability to recall specific memories for events that include the lost loved one.

Robinaugh and McNally were intrigued by this cognitive paradox, and it raised another question: Do thoughts of lost loved ones also shape how people with complicated grief think about the future?

To find out, the researchers recruited adults who had lost their spouse or life partner in the last one to three years. Some of the participants showed signs of complicated grief, while others showed signs of more typical bereavement.

The participants completed a series of tasks to assess their memory for past events and their ability to imagine future events, both with and without the deceased. They were asked to generate specific events based on positive cue words (e.g., safe, happy, successful, loved) and negative cue words (e.g., hurt, sad, afraid, angry).

Adults suffering from complicated grief showed deficits in their ability to recall specific autobiographical memories and to imagine specific events in the future compared to adults experiencing typical grief, but only for events that did not include the deceased. They showed no difficulty generating events that included the partner they had lost.

"Most striking to us was the ease with which individuals with complicated grief were able to imagine the future with the deceased relative to their difficulty imagining the future without the deceased," said Robinaugh and McNally.

"They frequently imagined landmark life events — such as the birth of their first child or a 50th wedding anniversary — that had long since become impossible. Yet, this impossible future was more readily imagined than one that could, at that point, realistically occur," they said.

These findings point to a cognitive mechanism underlying the distressed yearning that is characteristic of complicated grief.

The research also underscores the importance of generating goals and aspirations for the future after the loss of a loved one. According to the researchers, "setting goals and working toward them may be an important component of natural recovery from the disruptive and painful experience of loss."

The study was published in Clinical Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#18
Olive oil helps you feel full

Olive oil leads to satiety, shows a study that points out the mechanism behind it.

Reduced-fat food products are gaining popularity. More and more people are choosing "light" products in an attempt to lose weight, or at least in the hope that they would not gain pounds.

But whether these products are effective or not is a matter of dispute: while it is true that they contain fewer calories, people tend to overcompensate by eating more if they do not feel full.

Now a study has shown how "natural" oils and fats regulate the sensation of feeling full after eating, with olive oil leading the way.

So what makes this oil so effective?

Work groups at Germany's Technische Universitat Munchen (TUM) under professor Peter Schieberle and at the University of Vienna under professor Veronika Somoza studied four different edible fats and oils -- lard, butterfat, rapeseed oil and olive oil.

Over a period of three months, the study participants ate 500 gm of low-fat yoghurt enriched with one of the four fats or oils every day -- as a supplement to their normal diet, reports Science Daily.

"Olive oil had the biggest satiety effect," said Schieberle.

"The olive oil group showed a higher concentration of the satiety hormone serotonin in their blood. Subjectively speaking, these participants also reported that they found the olive oil yoghurt very filling," he added.

During the study period, no member of this group recorded an increase in their body fat percentage or their weight.

"Our findings show that aroma is capable of regulating satiety," Schieberle said. "We hope that this work will pave the way for the development of more effective reduced-fat food products that are nonetheless satiating," he said.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#19
Eating soybeans could cut cancer risk
Proteins found in soybeans, could inhibit growth of colon, liver and lung cancers, a new study has revealed.

Soybean meal is a bi-product following oil extraction from soybean seeds. It is rich in protein, which usually makes up around 40 percent of the nutritional components of the seeds and dependent on the line, and can also contain high oleic acid (a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid).

The study, conducted by scientists from University of Arkansas, looked at the role soybeans could have in the prevention of cancer.
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Using a variety of soybean lines which were high in oleic acid and protein, the researchers looked to monitor bioactivity between the peptides derived from the meals of soybean and various types of human cancer cells.

The study showed that peptides derived from soybean meal significantly inhibited cell growth by 73 percent for colon cancer, 70 percent for liver cancer and 68 percent for lung cancer cells using human cell lines.

This shows that the selected high oleic acid soybean lines could have a potential nutraceutical affect in helping to reduce the growth of several types of cancer cells.

The study is published in published in Food Research International.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#20
Ice from fast food restaurants dirtier than toilet water

Ice from fast food restaurants is dirtier than toilet water, a school science project by a 12-year-old found.

Jasmine Roberts collected ice samples from five restaurants in South Florida for her award-winning project-from both self-serve machines inside the restaurant and from drive-thru windows.

She then collected toilet water samples from the same restaurants and tested all of them for bacteria at the University of South Florida.

In several cases, the ice tested positive for E. coli bacteria, which comes from human waste and has been linked to several illness outbreaks across the country, ABC News reported.
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"These [bacteria] don`t belong there. It`s not cause for panic, although it is alarming because what she found is nothing new. You`re not more likely to get sick now. But she`s done us a favor by sounding the alarm," Dr. David Katz, medical contributor to `Good Morning America` said.

Both Roberts and Katz said that the ice is likely dirtier because machines aren`t cleaned and people use unwashed hands to scoop ice.

Toilet water is also surprisingly bacteria-free, because it comes from sanitized city water supplies.

Roberts got interested in the project after reading a newspaper article about bacteria in airplane water and decided to do something similar. Plus, she said, all of her friends chew on ice, and it drives her crazy.