Health Bulletin

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#21
Living on hope: Cell therapy may help fight leukaemia

A treatment that genetically alters a patient's own immune cells to fight cancer has, for the first time, produced remissions in adults with an acute leukaemia that is usually lethal, researchers are reporting. In one patient who was severely ill, all traces of leukaemia vanished in eight days. "We had hoped, but couldn't have predicted that the response would be so profound and rapid," said Dr Renier J Brentjens, the first author of a new study of the therapy and a specialist in leukemia at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.


The treatment is experimental, has been used in only a small number of patients and did not work in all of them. But experts consider it a highly promising approach for a variety of malignancies, including other blood cancers and tumours in organs like the prostate gland. The new study, in five adults with acute leukaemia in whom chemotherapy had failed, was published on Wednesday in the journal Science Translational Medicine.

The treatment is similar to one that pulled a 7-year-old girl, Emma Whitehead, from death's door into remission nearly a year ago, and that has had astounding success in several adults with chronic leukaemia in whom chemotherapy had failed. The treatment regimen that saved Emma and those adults was developed at University of Pennsylvania. Related studies have been done at National Cancer Institute.

But this cell-therapy approach had not been tried before in adults with the disease that Emma had, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. This type of blood cancer is worse in adults than in children, with a cure rate in adults of only about 40%, compared with 80% to 90% in children. The disease is not common. Each year in the US, it affects about 2,400 people older than 20, and 3,600 younger.

Though there are fewer cases in adults, there are more deaths: about 1,170 adults die each year compared with 270 deaths in people under 20.

In adults, this type of leukemia is a "devastating, galloping disease," said Dr Michel Sadelain , the senior author of the new study and director of the Center for Cell Engineering and the Gene Transfer and Gene Expression Laboratory at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in Manhattan.

Patients like the ones in the study usually have only a few months left, he said. But now, three of the five have been in remission for 5 to 24 months. Two others died: one was in remission but died from a blood clot, and the other relapsed. The survivors have had bonemarrow transplants. Their prognosis is good, but relapse is still possible.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#22
Fruits, veggies make you more optimistic

People who prefer to eat fruit and vegetables are likely to be more optimistic thanks to higher levels of plant compounds called carotenoids in their blood, says a new research.

Previous studies have shown that high blood levels of antioxidants, of which carotenoids are one form, may be a marker of good health.

A commonly-known carotenoid is beta-carotene, found in high levels in orange fruit and green, leafy vegetables.

Antioxidants help keep other molecules in the body from producing free radicals, which can damage cells and contribute to disease.

"Individuals with greater optimism tended to have greater levels of carotenoids such as beta-carotene," said Julia Boehm, of the Harvard School of Public Health, who led the study, the journal Psychosomatic Medicine reports.

"This is the first study of its kind to report a relationship between optimism and healthier levels of carotenoid concentrations," she added.

One theory is that antioxidants might have a de-stressing effect, according to the Daily Mail.

The current study evaluated blood concentrations of nine different antioxidants, including carotenoids such as beta-carotene and vitamin E in nearly 1,000 American men and women aged between 25 to 74 and 74 years.

Participants filled out a questionnaire about their life attitudes and provided blood samples to the researchers.

People who ate two or fewer servings of fruits and vegetables a day were significantly less optimistic than people who ate three or more servings a day.

They also measured the degree of optimism in the same group.

Researchers found that people who were more optimistic had up to a 13 percent increase in carotenoid concentrations in their blood compared with people who were less optimistic.

The researchers believe that higher levels of fruit and vegetable consumption among more optimistic people may at least partially explain the results.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#23
Abused women may give birth to autists

Women who underwent physical, emotional, or sexual abuse when they were children are more likely to have a kid, who is suffering with autism compare to others who faced no abuse.

According to a new study from Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH), woman who experienced the most serious abuse were three-and-a-half times more likely to have a child with autism.

The researchers examined data from more than 50,000 women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study II and found that it was not just women exposed to the most serious levels of abuse who had higher risk of having a child with autism, but also a large number of women who experienced moderate abuse.

While about 2 percent of women reported the most serious abuse, even women in the top 25 percent of abuse severity— that includes women who experienced moderate levels of abuse —were 60 percent more likely to have a child with autism compared with women who did not experience abuse.

The authors said that these observations suggest that abuse in childhood is not only harmful to person who directly experiences it, but could also increase risk for serious disabilities in the next generation.

The researchers also looked at nine pregnancy-related risk factors to see if they were linked to higher risk of having a child with autism in women, who were abused as children.

These nine risk factors—including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and smoking—have been earlier associated with an increased likelihood of having a child with autism.

The study has been published in JAMA Psychiatry.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#24
Abused women may give birth to autists

Women who underwent physical, emotional, or sexual abuse when they were children are more likely to have a kid, who is suffering with autism compare to others who faced no abuse.

According to a new study from Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH), woman who experienced the most serious abuse were three-and-a-half times more likely to have a child with autism.

The researchers examined data from more than 50,000 women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study II and found that it was not just women exposed to the most serious levels of abuse who had higher risk of having a child with autism, but also a large number of women who experienced moderate abuse.

While about 2 percent of women reported the most serious abuse, even women in the top 25 percent of abuse severity— that includes women who experienced moderate levels of abuse —were 60 percent more likely to have a child with autism compared with women who did not experience abuse.

The authors said that these observations suggest that abuse in childhood is not only harmful to person who directly experiences it, but could also increase risk for serious disabilities in the next generation.

The researchers also looked at nine pregnancy-related risk factors to see if they were linked to higher risk of having a child with autism in women, who were abused as children.

These nine risk factors—including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and smoking—have been earlier associated with an increased likelihood of having a child with autism.

The study has been published in JAMA Psychiatry.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#25
Black pepper: King of spices, enemy of ailments

My curiosity about this spice was triggered, when I took a mixture of black pepper and black cardamom and it worked as an instant remedy for diarrhoea.

Black pepper has been used as a folk medicine in a variety of cultures. The chemical, piperine is an active component in both black and white pepper and has numerous physiological and drug-like actions.

Now, several scientific studies provide evidence that piperine enhances digestive tract function, has antibiotic properties and anti-inflammatory effects, anti-oxidant properties, anti-cancer effects and may even help in weight loss.

Interestingly, it has been found to have anti-larvicide effect against the dengue causing mosquito. The East Africans' belief that body odour produced after ingesting pepper, repels mosquitoes may be well worth it for health authorities to consider using black pepper as a herbal remedy to arrest the dengue epidemic!

Also called the king of spices, "pepper" is one of the oldest and most popular spices in the world. Discovered 4000 years ago, it is indigenous to the Malabar Coast in India. It was the search for pepper that drew early Western sailors eastwards. It became so important that it was used as desirable currency-dowries, taxes and rents were paid in pepper corns and the word "pepper corn rent" was coined. The name pepper comes from the Sanskrit word 'pippali' meaning berry.

Like many spices that act as digestive stimulants, black pepper has been used to treat sluggish digestion, flatulence, bloating, lack of appetite and cramps. Several studies show that piperine favourably stimulates digestive enzymes of pancreas, improves digestive capacity. It has also been found to be useful in nausea.

Strong anti-oxidant activity has been found in black pepper extracts. This may render far reaching health benefits including cancer prevention, anti-inflammatory effects and immuno-modulatory activity.
A recent study in 2010 conducted to determine effects of piperine on malignant breast cancer cells found that it inhibited breast stem-cell renewal without causing toxicity to normal cells, hence concluding that piperine could be a potential cancer preventive agent. Another study in 2010 concluded that black-pepper extract enhanced activity of natural killer cells, showing powerful anti-cancer and anti-tumour effects.

An animal study in 2010 showed that visceral fat reduced significantly in the group which was fed black pepper and its extracts piperine.
Hoever, piperine can modify the effects of numerous other medicines. Therefore, it is important to seek advice from a qualified professional before using it in therapeutic doses.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#26
Why energy drinks are fatal found

Consuming energy drinks may increase blood pressure and disturb your heart's natural rhythm, new research led by an Indian-origin scientist has warned. US researchers analysed data from seven previously published observational and interventional studies to determine how consuming energy drinks might impact heart health. In the first part of the pooled analysis, researchers examined the QT interval of 93 people who had just consumed one to three cans of energy drinks.

The QT interval is a segment of the heart's rhythm on an electrocardiogram; when prolonged, it can cause irregular heartbeats or sudden cardiac death. They found that QT interval was 10 milliseconds longer for those who had energy drinks. "Doctors are concerned if patients experience an additional 30 milliseconds in their QT interval from baseline," said Sachin A Shah, lead author from the University of the Pacific in Stockton, California.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#27
Bananas a miracle cure for migraine

A mother of two from West Sussex, who suffered from migraines that left her bed ridden for days at a time for almost 20 years, discovered that munching on a banana every couple of hours was a miracle cure.


Lisa Poyner, 38, from Worthing, told the Daily Express that she doesn't like bananas very much, but eating every couple of hours is the only thing that helps her lead a normal life.

She said that she had been prescribed all kinds of medication before, but nothing ever worked as well eating bananas every couple of hours.

Poyner said that bananas are handy as they're healthy, and good sustenance, so if she feels an attack is about to strike, she just grabs one straight away.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#28
Nausea drug can kill brain tumours

Scientists have discovered that the growth of brain tumours can be halted by a drug currently used to help patients recover from chemotherapy-induced nausea.

New research from the University of Adelaide looked at the relationship between brain tumours and a peptide associated with inflammation in the brain, called "substance P". Substance P is commonly released throughout the body by the nervous system, and contributes to tissue swelling following injury. In the brain, levels of substance P greatly increase after traumatic brain injury and stroke.

"Researchers have known for some time that levels of substance P are also greatly increased in different tumour types around the body," said Dr Elizabeth Harford-Wright, a postdoctoral fellow in the University's Adelaide Centre for Neuroscience Research.

"We wanted to know if these elevated levels of the peptide were also present in brain tumour cells, and if so, whether or not they were affecting tumour growth. Importantly, we wanted to see if we could stop tumour growth by blocking substance P," she said.

Harford-Wright found that levels of substance P were greatly increased in brain tumour tissue. Knowing that substance P binds to a receptor called NK1, she used an antagonist drug called Emend to stop substance P binding to the receptor. Emend is already used in cancer clinics to help patients with chemotherapy-induced nausea.

"We were successful in blocking substance P from binding to the NK1 receptor, which resulted in a reduction in brain tumour growth - and it also caused cell death in the tumour cells," she said.

"So preventing the actions of substance P from carrying out its role in brain tumours actually halted the growth ofbrain cancer. "This is a very exciting result, and it offers further opportunities to study possible brain tumour treatments over the coming years," she added.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#29
Coffee may protect against liver damage in alcohol drinkers

Heavy coffee consumption may protect against liver damage in men who drink alcohol, a new study has claimed.

Researchers asked nearly 19,000 Finnish men and women between ages 25 and 74 about their coffee and alcohol consumption.

"Our findings suggest a possible protective effect for coffee intake in alcohol consumers," said study researcher Dr Onni Niemela, of Seinajoki Central Hospital and the University of Tampere in Finland.

Researchers measured participants' blood levels of the liver enzyme gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), MyHealthNewsDaily reported.

Drinking alcohol raises levels of GGT in the blood. Over time, drinking can also lead to alcoholic liver disease. People with liver disease show higher levels of GGT in their blood.

Men in the study who consumed more than 24 alcoholic drinks per week, or about 3.5 drinks daily, had the highest levels of the liver enzyme - about three times higher than men who did not drink alcohol.

But among the men who were heavy drinkers, those who also consumed five or more cups of coffee daily showed a 50 per cent reduction in GGT compared with men who drank no coffee.

The researchers found no significant association between coffee consumption and GGT levels in female drinkers.

In addition to drinking alcohol, smoking, older age and being overweight can also raise GGT levels.

While there were no differences in these variables among heavy drinkers, moderate drinkers, former drinkers and nondrinkers in the study, the researchers cannot determine for sure whether some interaction between alcohol and one of these factors affected the results.

The researchers found that the way that coffee was prepared ¿ whether it was filtered, boiled or served as espresso, for example - did not seem to make a difference in the findings.

Previous studies have suggested that drinking coffee may decrease GGT levels, and that caffeine may play a role in this.

It remains unclear whether elevated levels of the liver enzyme correlate with symptoms of liver disease.

The study was published in the journal Alcohol and Alcoholism.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#30
Song stuck in your head? Try solving puzzles

Solving tricky anagrams can help you get rid of earworms — a piece of music that keeps repeating in your mind so that you hear it, even when it is not being played — scientists claim.

Solving some anagrams can force the intrusive music out of your working memory, allowing it to be replaced with other more amenable thoughts, scientists said. However, trying anything too difficult seemed to have little effect, the Telegraph reported.

"The key is to find something that will give the right level of challenge. If you are cognitively engaged, it limits the ability of intrusive songs to enter your head," said Dr Ira Hyman, a music psychologist at Western Washington University who conducted the research.

"Something we can do automatically like driving or walking means you are not using all of your cognitive resource, so there is plenty of space left for that internal jukebox to start playing," Hyman said.

"Likewise, if you are trying something too hard, then your brain will not be engaged successfully, so that the music can come back. You need to find that bit in the middle where there is not much space left in the brain. That will be different for each of us," she said.

Hyman and her colleagues conducted a series of tests on volunteers by playing them popular songs in an attempt to find out how tunes can become stuck in long-term memory.

The researchers tested whether solving puzzles such as anagrams would help to reduce the recurrence of earworms. Anagrams were found to be successful in tackling ear -worms and the team also discovered that solving those with five letters gave the best results.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#31
Found: What causes Down’s syndrome

Extra chromosome inherited in Down's syndrome — chromosome 21— alters brain and body development, a study has found. Researchers at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (Sanford-Burnham ) have new evidence that points to a protein called sorting nexin 27, or SNX27.

SNX27 production is inhibited by a molecule encoded on chromosome 21.

The study shows that SNX27 is reduced in human Down's syndrome brains. The extra copy of chromosome 21 means a person with Down's syndrome produces less SNX27 protein, which in turn disrupts brain function.

What's more, the researchers showed that restoring SNX27 in Down's syndrome mice improves cognitive function and behaviour.

"In the brain, SNX27 keeps certain receptors on the cell surface — receptors that are necessary for neurons to fire properly," Huaxi Xu, PhD, professor in Sanford-Burnham's Del E Webb Neuroscience, Aging and Stem Cell Research Center and senior author of the study, said. "So, in Down's syndrome, we believe lack of SNX27 is at least partly to blame for developmental and cognitive defects," Xu said. The study is published in the journal Nature Medicine.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#32
Found: What causes Down’s syndrome

Extra chromosome inherited in Down's syndrome — chromosome 21— alters brain and body development, a study has found. Researchers at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (Sanford-Burnham ) have new evidence that points to a protein called sorting nexin 27, or SNX27.

SNX27 production is inhibited by a molecule encoded on chromosome 21.

The study shows that SNX27 is reduced in human Down's syndrome brains. The extra copy of chromosome 21 means a person with Down's syndrome produces less SNX27 protein, which in turn disrupts brain function.

What's more, the researchers showed that restoring SNX27 in Down's syndrome mice improves cognitive function and behaviour.

"In the brain, SNX27 keeps certain receptors on the cell surface — receptors that are necessary for neurons to fire properly," Huaxi Xu, PhD, professor in Sanford-Burnham's Del E Webb Neuroscience, Aging and Stem Cell Research Center and senior author of the study, said. "So, in Down's syndrome, we believe lack of SNX27 is at least partly to blame for developmental and cognitive defects," Xu said. The study is published in the journal Nature Medicine.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#33
No lame excuse: You can be ‘allergic’ to exercise

It sounds improbable but the world is waking up to a few people who are actually allergic to exercise. This could come as a suprise for all those who joke about not hitting the gym because "they are allergic to sweating it out" .

A British woman—mother of four—can't hit the treadmill because she is among the few people across the globe who have been diagnosed with Exercise-Induced Angioedema (EIA). Thirty-three-year old Kasia Beaver can't workout because an increased heart rate from pumping weights or jogging could prove fatal. Kasia suffered her first attack of allergy when she was 20 and expecting her first child. Playing with kids or any activity caused problems to her. Doctors finally diagnosed her with EIA and said any form of physical exercise could lead to an anaphylactic shock that could even kill her.

Kasia told the Daily Mail recently , "I was ice skating with my husband when I had a really bad attack. People don't believe me when I tell them I'm allergic to exercise. They think it's just an excuse to be lazy. But the truth is I used to go to the gym all the time. I was really sporty. I was a size 10. One day I went to the gym with my mum. I just did a normal workout and then my eyes started feeling tight. It took me years to realize that exercise was the trigger. Every time my heart rate goes up I have an attack."

Kasia now takes a medicine called ketotifen, an antihistamine, which allows her to walk to the park for the first time in a decade without suffering an attack.

Experts say EIA is a rare disorder in which anaphylaxis occurs after physical activity.

The symptoms may include wheezing, nausea, abdominal cramping and diarrhea. If physical activity continues, patients may progress to more severe symptoms, including hypotension, and, ultimately , cardiovascular collapse.

Vigorous forms of physical activity such as jogging, tennis, dancing , and bicycling are more commonly associated with exercise-induced anaphylaxis, although lower levels of exertion like walking are also capable of triggering attacks.

In a long-term study, the physical activity most often associated with exercise-induced anaphylaxis was jogging. Prevention remains the best treatment for patients with exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

Reducing physical activity to a lower level may diminish the frequency of attacks.

Such patients should also avoid any form of exercise in extremely humid, hot, or cold weather and during the allergy season.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#34
No lame excuse: You can be ‘allergic’ to exercise

It sounds improbable but the world is waking up to a few people who are actually allergic to exercise. This could come as a suprise for all those who joke about not hitting the gym because "they are allergic to sweating it out" .

A British woman—mother of four—can't hit the treadmill because she is among the few people across the globe who have been diagnosed with Exercise-Induced Angioedema (EIA). Thirty-three-year old Kasia Beaver can't workout because an increased heart rate from pumping weights or jogging could prove fatal. Kasia suffered her first attack of allergy when she was 20 and expecting her first child. Playing with kids or any activity caused problems to her. Doctors finally diagnosed her with EIA and said any form of physical exercise could lead to an anaphylactic shock that could even kill her.

Kasia told the Daily Mail recently , "I was ice skating with my husband when I had a really bad attack. People don't believe me when I tell them I'm allergic to exercise. They think it's just an excuse to be lazy. But the truth is I used to go to the gym all the time. I was really sporty. I was a size 10. One day I went to the gym with my mum. I just did a normal workout and then my eyes started feeling tight. It took me years to realize that exercise was the trigger. Every time my heart rate goes up I have an attack."

Kasia now takes a medicine called ketotifen, an antihistamine, which allows her to walk to the park for the first time in a decade without suffering an attack.

Experts say EIA is a rare disorder in which anaphylaxis occurs after physical activity.

The symptoms may include wheezing, nausea, abdominal cramping and diarrhea. If physical activity continues, patients may progress to more severe symptoms, including hypotension, and, ultimately , cardiovascular collapse.

Vigorous forms of physical activity such as jogging, tennis, dancing , and bicycling are more commonly associated with exercise-induced anaphylaxis, although lower levels of exertion like walking are also capable of triggering attacks.

In a long-term study, the physical activity most often associated with exercise-induced anaphylaxis was jogging. Prevention remains the best treatment for patients with exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

Reducing physical activity to a lower level may diminish the frequency of attacks.

Such patients should also avoid any form of exercise in extremely humid, hot, or cold weather and during the allergy season.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#35
Superbug spreads to communities: Study

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a superbug generally associated with hospitalized patients, has spread to communities as well. This was shown in a recent study by a network of microbiology laboratories at the country's s premier medical colleges and hospitals.


The study, which analyses how patients' response to antibiotics at select hospitals in 2008 and 2009, found the overall prevalence of MRSA to be 41%, which is very high. Among outpatients, ward inpatients and those in the ICU, the isolation rates of the drug-resistant bacteria were 28%, 42% and 43% respectively in 2008, and 27%, 49% and 47% in 2009. MRSA causes dangerous infections of the skin, soft tissue, bones, the bloodstream and lungs.

"We used cefoxitin (10 microgram) and oxacillin (1 microgram) for methicillin resistance. The other antibiotics that were tested included penicillin (10 units), gentamicin (10 microgram) and ciprofloxacin (5 microgram). They did not work. Only vancomycin (30 microgram) and linezolid (30 microgram) were effective," said Dr Raman Sardana, microbiologist at Apollo Hospital in Delhi, who participated in the study supported by WHO. Other participants in the investigations to assess antibiotic-resistance were AIIMS and Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya in Delhi; Hinduja national hospital and MRC in Mumbai; PGIMER Chandigarh; and CMC Vellore.

"The emergence of Staphylococcus aureus, a drug-resistant bacteria, in outpatients is worrying. It necessitates widespread use of high-end antibiotics, which are limited," said a senior doctor. He added that MRSA causes infections mostly in the armpits, genital area and nasal mucous membranes. It is transmitted through the skin, towels, clothing or direct body contact. All it needs is a small abrasion to enter the patient's bloodstream.

Methicillin resistance was first reported in England in 1961, and surfaced in the US a few years later. "Its prevalence in developing nations like ours, with a high burden of infectious diseases and low healthcare spending, is a concern," said Dr Sanjeev Bagai, a paediatric nephrologist.

"Judicious use of antibiotics and antifungal is imperative," said Dr Chand Wattal, head of the microbiology department at Sir Ganga Ram.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#36
Scientists claim to discover genes influencing cancers

A group of scientists in Australia claimed to have discovered the genes which can increase a person's risk of developing several cancers.

Queensland Institute of Medical Research (QIMR) has been working with an international study led by Cambridge University in England for the research project that examined the DNA make-up of more than 200,000 people, an ABC report said.

"Every single one of these new genes we've discovered – in total across all the cancers there's more than 150 of them – any one of those genes might lead us into completely new kinds of treatments for these cancers," QIMR spokeswoman Georgia Chenevix-Trench was quoted as saying.

"It'll take a lot more work of this type to actually understand how these genes operate and then how we might be able to interfere with them in some way," she said.

Chenevix-Trench, however, pointed out that translation of the research outcome into treatment may take a long time.

"The first thing you need to do to devise new treatments is to understand the mechanism underlying these diseases and this is really providing some very new insights into some of the genes that might be responsible," she said.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#37
Tea, coffee can activate cancer gene

Consumption of black and green teas, coffee and liquid smoke flavouring can activate the highest levels of a gene associated with cancer, scientists, including Indian-origin researchers, have warned.

Scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center tested the potentially harmful effect of foods and flavourings on the DNA of cells. They found that liquid smoke flavouring, black and green teas and coffee activated cancer-linked gene called p53.
Liquid smoke, produced from the distilled condensation of natural smoke, is often used to add smoky flavor to sausages, other meats and vegan meat substitutes.

The p53 gene becomes activated when DNA is damaged. Its gene product makes repair proteins that mend DNA. The higher the level of DNA damage, the more p53 becomes activated.

"We don't know much about the foods we eat and how they affect cells in our bodies," said Scott Kern, the Kovler Professor of Oncology and Pathology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
"But it's clear that plants contain many compounds that are meant to deter humans and animals from eating them, like cellulose in stems and bitter-tasting tannins in leaves and beans we use to make teas and coffees, and their impact needs to be assessed," Kern said.
Kern cautioned that the study does not suggest people should stop using tea, coffee or flavourings, but do emphasise the need for further research.

The team, including Samuel Gilbert, Kalpesh Patel, Soma Ghosh and Anil Bhunia from Johns Hopkins, mixed dilutions of the food products and flavourings with human cells and grew them in laboratory dishes for 18 hours.

Measuring and comparing p53 activity with baseline levels, the scientists found that liquid smoke flavouring, black and green teas and coffee showed up to nearly 30-fold increases in p53 activity, which was on par with their tests of p53 activity caused by a chemotherapy drug called etoposide.

Researcher Zulfiquer Hossain tracked down the chemicals responsible for the p53 activity. The strongest p53 activity was found in two chemicals: pyrogallol and gallic acid.

Pyrogallol, commonly found in smoked foods, is also found in cigarette smoke, hair dye, tea, coffee, bread crust, roasted malt and cocoa powder, according to Kern. Gallic acid, a variant of pyrogallol, is found in teas and coffees.
Kern said that more studies are needed to examine the type of DNA damage caused by pyrogallol and gallic acid, but there could be ways to remove the two chemicals from foods and flavourings.

"We found that Scotch whiskey, which has a smoky flavor and could be a substitute for liquid smoke, had minimal effect on p53 activity in our tests," said Kern.

Other flavourings like fish and oyster sauces, tabasco and soy sauces, and black bean sauces showed minimal p53 effects in Kern's tests, as did soybean paste, kim chee, wasabi powder, hickory smoke powders and smoked paprika. The study was published in journal Food and Chemical Toxicology.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#38
Saliva test can predict aggression risk in boys

A simple saliva test could be an effective tool in predicting violent behaviour in boys, a new study suggests. The study, led by Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center suggests a link between salivary concentrations of certain hormones and aggression.
Researchers, led by psychiatrist Drew Barzman collected saliva samples from 17 boys aged 7-9 years admitted to the hospital for psychiatric care to identify which children were most likely to show aggression and violence.

The samples were tested for levels of three hormones: testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and cortisol. The severity and frequency of aggression correlated with the levels of these hormones. Barzman's team focused on rapid, real-time assessment of violence among child and adolescent inpatients.

But he believes a fast and accurate saliva test could eventually have other applications. "We believe salivary hormone testing has the potential to help doctors monitor which treatments are working best for their patients," he said.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#39
Smoking a sign of psychiatric illness

Smoking may be a sign of psychiatric illness, according to a new UK report, which found a third of smokers to have mental disorders.

According to the report, almost one in three cigarettes consumed in UK today is smoked by someone with a mental disorder. When people with drug and alcohol problems are included, the proportion is even higher, the report published by the Royal College of Physicians and the Royal College of Psychiatrists found.

The reason being that smoking rates have more than halved over the past 50 years, but the decline has not happened equally in all parts of society,'The Independent' reported.

"Smoking is increasingly becoming the domain of the most disadvantaged: the poor, homeless, imprisoned and those with mental disorder. This is a damning indictment of UK public health policy and clinical service provision," the report said.

The report further warned that of the ten million smokers in UK, up to three million have a mental disorder, up to two million have been prescribed a psychoactive drug in the past year and approaching one million have longstanding (mental) disease.

While smoking rates among the general public have fallen dramatically, from 56% in men and 42%in women in the early 1960s to 21% in both sexes today, they have hardly changed among people with mental disorders and remain at over 40%.

Persuading people with mental disorders to give up smoking was a major challenge. But so was identifying smokers who might need psychiatric treatment, Stephen Spiro, deputy chair of the British Lung Foundation, said. "Routinely considering whether someone presenting with a lung disease, or indeed any patient who smokes, might benefit from referral to mental health services, could make the key difference for many individuals," professor Spiro said.

Smoking increases with the severity of mental disorder, and amongst those with a psychotic illness almost all smoke. Nicotine appears to provide some relief from symptoms of anxiety, depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder which may explain why people with these conditions become smokers.
 

vijigermany

Well-Known Member
#40
Decoded: Why we like violent films

People are more likely to watch movies with gory scenes of violence if they felt there was meaning in confronting violent aspects of real life, according to a study.


Researchers at the University of Augsburg, Germany and the University of Wisconsin-Madison studied why movie audiences are attracted to bloodshed, gore and violence.

Their study examined whether these serious, contemplative, and truth-seeking motivations for exposure to violent portrayals are more than just an intellectual pleasure.

They invited a large binational sample from Germany and the US (total of 482 participants), ranging in age from 18-82, and with varying levels of education.

Participants viewed film trailers featuring different levels of gore and meaningfulness, and rated their likelihood of watching the movie. They also indicated perceptions of the film (how gory, meaningful, thought-provoking, etc).
 

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