Health Bulletin

vijigermany

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A New subtype of prostate cancer identified

Researchers have identified a new subtype of prostate cancer that occurs in about seven percent of patients with advanced disease.


The subtype is characterized by loss of the gene CDK12. It was found to be more common in metastatic prostate cancer compared to early-stage tumors that had not spread, said the study published in the journal Cell.


"Because prostate cancer is so common, seven percent is a significant number," said senior study author Arul Chinnaiyan from the University of Michigan in the US.



Tumors in which CDK12 was inactivated were responsive to immune checkpoint inhibitors, a type of immunotherapy treatment that has overall had limited success in prostate cancer, the study said.


"The fact that immune checkpoint inhibitors may be effective against this sub-type of prostate cancer makes it even more significant. This is an exciting prospect for patients who have CDK12 alterations and may benefit from immunotherapy," Chinnaiyan added.


The researchers said they will lead a multisite clinical trial to assess checkpoint inhibitors as a treatment for metastatic prostate cancer with the CDK12 loss.


In this study, the researchers looked at DNA and RNA sequencing data from 360 tumor samples from patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.


This is an aggressive, advanced form of the disease in which cancer has spread throughout the body and no longer responds to traditional hormone-based treatments.


The researchers found the loss of CDK12 in only about one percent of early prostate cancer samples. That jumped to 7 percent for metastatic cancer, which indicates a more aggressive form of the disease.


By following the mechanism of how CDK12 loss impacts the cell, the researchers found a process in which cells create neoantigens that are foreign to the immune system.


This boosts immune-fighting T-cells, which may explain why these patients benefit from immune checkpoint blockade.
 

vijigermany

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Cancer causing gene 'jumped' from plants to humans

A 'jumping gene' known to cause

cancer

and neurological disorders may have been transferred to humans from plants, scientists say.

Scientists from University of Adelaide in Australia have shown that widespread transfer of genes between species has radically changed the genomes of today's mammals, and been an important driver of evolution.

In the world's largest study of so-called "jumping genes", researchers have traced two particular jumping genes across 759 species of plants, animals and fungi. These jumping genes are actually small pieces of DNA that can copy themselves throughout a genome and are known as transposable elements.

They have found that cross species transfers, even between plants and animals, have occurred frequently throughout evolution.

Both of the transposable elements they traced L1 and BovB entered mammals as foreign DNA. This is the first time anyone has shown that the L1 element, important in humans, has jumped between species.

"Jumping genes, properly called retrotransposons, copy and paste themselves around genomes, and in genomes of other species. How they do this is not yet known although insects like ticks or mosquitoes or possibly viruses may be involved it's still a big puzzle," said David Adelson, from the University of Adelaide.

"This process is called horizontal transfer, differing from the normal parent-offspring transfer, and it's had an enormous impact on mammalian evolution," said Adelson.

For example, 25 percent of the genome of cows and sheep is derived from jumping genes.

"Think of a jumping gene as a parasite. What's in the DNA is not so important it's the fact that they introduce themselves into other genomes and cause disruption of genes and how they are regulated," said Adelson.

The study, published in the journal Genome Biology, found horizontal gene transfer was much more widespread than had been thought.

"L1 elements were thought to be inherited only from parent to offspring," said Atma Ivancevic, postdoctoral researcher at University of Adelaide.

"Most studies have only looked at a handful of species and found no evidence of transfer. We looked at as many species as we could," said Ivancevic.

L1 elements in humans have been associated with cancer and neurological disorders. Understanding the inheritance of this element is important for understanding the evolution of diseases, researchers said.

They found L1s are abundant in plants and animals, although only appearing sporadically in fungi. However, the most surprising result was the lack of L1s in two key mammal species the Australian monotremes (platypus and echidna) showing that the gene entered the mammalian evolutionary pathway after the divergence from monotremes.



"We think the entry of L1s into the mammalian genome was a key driver of the rapid evolution of mammals over the past 100 million years," said Adelson.



The team also looked at the transfer of BovB elements between species. BovB is a much younger jumping gene: it was first discovered in cows, but has since been shown to jump between a bizarre array of animals including reptiles, elephants and marsupials.



Previous research, led by Adelson, found that ticks were the most likely facilitators of cross species BovB transfer.



The team believes that studying insect species will help find more evidence of cross-species transfer. They also aim to study other jumping genes and explore the possibility of aquatic vectors, such as sea worms and nematodes.
 

vijigermany

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Heart risks in the kids of older mums

heart risks

in the kids of older mums The children of older mothers seem to be more susceptible to heart risks later in life, according to new research.

These results could be crucial in designing preventive treatments for children born to such women, the study's authors say.

The research suggests that intervention strategies should be tailored according to gender, as female children didn't have the same susceptibility to heart problems or diseased blood vessels as male children.

To investigate the true impact of the age at which a mother gives birth on the health of her offspring, older female rats, which were equivalent to a 35-year-old woman, were mated together with young males.



At four months, their offspring's blood vessel and heart function were tested.



In future studies, the researchers will look into whether or not the findings can apply to human subjects.



The study's lead author, Sandra Davidge, said: "This research is important because it improves our understanding of the impact of giving birth at an older age on the health of offspring in later life.



"We are further analysing the mechanisms that might be contributing to these adverse effects on the children of older mothers, in particular focusing on the role of placental function
 

vijigermany

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Most patients with multiple sclerosis have Vit D deficiency

Deficiency of

Vitamin D
, also known as the sunshine vitamin, increases the risk of developing auto-immune diseases like

multiple sclerosis
, warn neurologists.

“We found Vitamin D to be less in almost 70 per cent to 80 per cent patients with multiple sclerosis,” said Dr Suresh Kumar, organizing secretary of scientific meet, “Indian Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis - ICTRIMS 2018”. The three-day meet organized by Indian Academy of Neurology (IAN), Kerala Association of Neurologists (KAN) starts in the city on Friday and will be attended by more than 70 international and national faculty.

Multiple Sclerosis, an autoimmune neurodegenerative disease which mostly affects young individuals, especially females.

Dr Mathew Abraham, organising chairman of the meet said that women between the age of 20 and 40 are most affected. “Treatment was a big challenge as the cost of medicines was high. But now with local pharmaceuticals manufacturing the drugs, the cost of medicines has reduced,” said Dr Mathew. Earlier, the medicine cost per month would be around Rs 16,000 but now it is Rs 3000 to Rs 4000.

“Continuing with treatment still remains a big challenge. We found that after two years continuance of medicines was low amongst the patients,” added Dr Suresh.



Disease burden in young females are twice than males. Multiple Sclerosis for long was considered as a disease predominantly affecting people in the temperate climates. A growing incidence of disease is recorded in Asian countries and the Indian subcontinent, due to various factors including viral infections, latitude factor, Vitamin D deficiency, smoking and lifestyle changes.



“In India the prevalence of disease is about 3-5 per one lakh population. The disease affects the

central nervous system
and cause multiple symptoms like visual loss, paralysis, bladder symptoms, cognitive dysfunction and mood changes,” Dr Suresh added.
 

vijigermany

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Scientists develop endoscopy simulator ‘EndoMimyk’

Scientists at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) have developed a low-cost simulator for endoscopy—a medical procedure to examine the interior of a body by inserting a tube with a camera attached to it—that will allow clinicians to learn and perform the procedure without the risks involved in using human patients.

The purpose of this simulator, called ‘EndoMimyk’, is to train clinicians without using animals and human patients in a virtual reality environment with graphical visualization and haptics (virtual touch). Also, a simulator of this kind has uses other than training: they help bridge the spatial and temporal gap between the patient and the doctor and is useful in remote medical diagnosis and treatment.

Clinicians who perform this highly skilled procedure need to learn a high degree of hand-eye coordination and several sessions to master it. And, learning this using human patients is risky and can be avoided if a simulator is available.

The project began under the leadership of Prof GK Ananthasuresh of the mechanical engineering department and Prof Vijay Natarajan (Computer Science and Automation, IISc) along with gastroenterologists of AIG.

Shanthanu Chakravarthy (Mechanical Engineering) then pursued the design, prototyping, control, haptics, and simulation of an endoscopy simulator while Nithin Shivashankar and Dilip Thomas, both PhDs from CSA-IISc, built the visualization system for the simulator. These and several project staff members worked with clinicians at AIG and K Lakshman of Rangadore Hospital-Bengaluru, to build a working system for an upper GI endoscopy simulator.

Subsequently, Chakravarthy, Shivashankar, Raghu Menon from the Centre for Product Design and Manufacturing (CPDM) and G Balaji (a former project assistant in IISc) founded Mimyk and incubated to commercialize EndoMimyk. Funding for Mimyk came from the Biotechnology Ignition Grant (BIG) of BIRAC-DBT and Idea2PoC grant from the Department of IT-BT and S&T, Government of Karnataka.

How EndoMimyk works

EndoMimyk is certainly not the first such simulator available. However, the simulator developed by the IISc team led by Prof GK Ananthasuresh is a novel system consisting of a haptic interface, VR-models, and instrumented tools. Proprietary control algorithms and physics-based simulations are used to integrate these modules resulting in a high-fidelity, realistic, and immersive training system.

Haptics, the research team says, is a fast-emerging technology that offers immersiveness while interacting with virtual environments. Sophisticated haptics technology can be difficult to incorporate into training systems.



“Our system employs haptic-integrated VR technology developed at IISc for immersive simulations. The interaction models are physics-based and are being developed to work with real-time haptic interaction. These physics-based models provide realistic rendering and are superior to graphics-only scenes provided by the competitors,” the team said in a statement.



While EndoMimyk presently helps in endoscopy for gastrointestinal (GI) ailments as the idea for it first emerged at the 2011 brainstorming meeting organised by Asian Institute of Gastroenterology (AIG), it can easily be converted for other ailments.



“Rich medical content and training modules are being developed for upper and lower-GI endoscopy that accompany the hapto-VR simulator. These modules will introduce best practices is endoscopy training. Two patents and two

Patent Cooperation Treaty
(PCT) have been filed for this work,” the team said.



The team added that the technology developed in this system can also be easily extended for many other interventional procedures in the future (bronchoscopy by pulmonary and intensive care physicians,

cystoscopy
by urologists). The long-term vision of Mimyk is to leverage the base technology to develop medical simulator solutions in clinical applications.
 

vijigermany

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Test may spot cancer years before symptoms

Blood cancers could one day be detected by screening after scientists found signs of their onset etched in the DNA, years before symptoms begin. Mutations which drastically increase the chances of someone developing acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) are measurable up to five years before it emerges, researchers from University of Cambridge have shown.


Blood cancers
could one day be detected by
screening
after scientists found signs of their onset etched in the
DNA
, years before symptoms begin.

Mutations which drastically increase the chances of someone developing acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) are measurable up to five years before it emerges, researchers from University of Cambridge have shown.

They hope to use this window to test interventions to prevent the disease — which can materialise without warning and demand urgent life-saving treatment — from emerging at all. However, more work is needed before a screening programme for AML would be cost-effective and accurate enough to prevent people from wrongly being told they are at risk.

“AML often appears very suddenly in patients, so we were surprised to discover that its origins are generally detectable more than five years before it develops,” said Dr Grace Collord, one of the lead authors of the study published in ‘Nature’.

Researchers used blood samples from 800 patients in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EpiC) which launched in 1992. In this group, 124 of the participants developed AML.
Researchers showed that the more mutations were present at early ages, the higher the risk of AML emerging.
 

vijigermany

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Eating oranges may prevent eye disease: Study

People who regularly eat

oranges
are less likely to develop

macular degeneration
- the leading cause of vision loss, a study led by an Indian origin researcher claims.

Researchers at the Westmead Institute for Medical Research in Australia interviewed more than 2,000 adults aged over 50 and followed them over a 15-year period.

Macular degeneration is a medical condition which may result in blurred or no vision in the centre of the visual field.

The study, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, showed that people who ate at least one serving of oranges every day had more than a 60 per cent reduced risk of developing late macular degeneration 15 years later.

Lead researcher Bamini Gopinath, an associate professor at the University of Sydney, said the data showed that flavonoids in oranges appear to help prevent against the eye disease.

"Essentially we found that people who eat at least one serve of orange every day have a reduced risk of developing macular degeneration compared with people who never eat oranges," she said.

"Even eating an orange once a week seems to offer significant benefits. The data shows that flavonoids found in oranges appear to help protect against the disease," Gopinath said.

Until now most research has focused on the effects of common nutrients such as vitamins C, E and A on the eyes.



"Our research is different because we focused on the relationship between flavonoids and macular degeneration, she said.



Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants found in almost all fruits and vegetables, and they have important anti-inflammatory benefits for the immune system.



"We examined common foods that contain flavonoids such as tea, apples, red wine and oranges. Significantly, the data did not show a relationship between other food sources protecting the eyes against the disease," Gopinath said.



Age is the strongest known risk factor for macular degeneration and the disease is more likely to occur after the age of 50. There is currently no cure for the disease, the researchers said.
 

vijaykumar12

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கேரளாவில் நிபா வைரஸ் யாரால் பரவியது?- சுகாதாரத்துறை ஆய்வில் கண்டுபிடிப்பு

1531720683929.png

கேரள மாநிலம் கோழிக்கோடு, மலப்புரம் மாவட்டங்களில் கடந்த மே மாதம் ‘நிபா’ வைரஸ் காய்ச்சல் பரவியது. இந்த காய்ச்சல் பாதிப்பு காரணமாக நர்சு உள்பட 17 பேர் உயிரிழந்தனர்.

‘நிபா’ வைரஸ் காய்ச்சல் பரவியதற்கு பழந்திண்ணி வவ்வால்கள் காரணம் என்று கூறப்பட்டதால் காய்ச்சலால் பாதிக்கப்பட்டவர்களின் ரத்த மாதிரிகள் பரிசோதனை செய்யப்பட்டன. அதன் பிறகு மாநில அரசு எடுத்த தீவிர நடவடிக்கை காரணமாக கேரளாவில் ‘நிபா’ வைரஸ் கட்டுக்குள் கொண்டுவரப்பட்டது.

இந்த நிலையில் கேரளாவில் ‘நிபா’ வைரஸ் பரவ காரணமாக இருந்தவர் யார்? என்பது பற்றி கேரள சுகாதாரத்துறை அதிகாரிகள் ஆய்வு மேற்கொண்டனர். இதில் கோழிக்கோடு மாவட்டம் பெரும்பரா பகுதியை சேர்ந்த முகம்மதுசபீத் (வயது 26) என்பவர் மூலம் இந்த வைரஸ் காய்ச்சல் பரவியது தற்போது கண்டுபிடிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது.

வளைகுடா நாட்டில் பணியாற்றி வந்த முகம்மது சபீத் கேரளாவுக்கு திரும்பிய போது கடந்த மே மாதம் 2-ந்தேதி காய்ச்சலால் பாதிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளார். உடனே அவரை அருகில் உள்ள அரசு ஆஸ்பத்திரிக்கு சிகிச்சைக்காக அழைத்துச் சென்றனர். அப்போது அங்கு அவருக்கு சிகிச்சை அளித்த நர்சு லினி உள்பட 4 பேருக்கு வைரஸ் காய்ச்சல் பரவியது.

கோழிக்கோடு அரசு ஆஸ்பத்திரிக்கு முகம்மது சபீத்தை ஸ்கேன் எடுக்க அழைத்துச் சென்றபோது அங்கும் 4 பேருக்கு பரவியது. இதற்கிடையில் 5-ந்தேதி முகம்மது சபீத் பலியானார். அதைதொடர்ந்து அவரது தந்தை, சகோதரன், மாமியார் ஆகியோரும் ‘நிபா’ வைரஸ் காய்ச்சல் காரணமாக பலியானார்கள். இதுபோல 17 பேர் உயிரிழந்தனர்.

இந்த தகவல்கள் மாநில சுகாதாரத்துறை ஆய்வு அறிக்கையில் குறிப்பிடப்பட்டு உள்ளது
 

vijigermany

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உலகின் இரண்டாவது கண் மருத்துவமனை எழும்பூர் அரசு கண் மருத்துவமனைக்கு வயது 200

ஆசியாவிலேயே முதல் கண் வங்கி தொடங்கப்பட்டது சென்னையில்தான்.




சென்னை... இந்தியாவின் மருத்துவ மையம். வெளிநாட்டினரும் ஆர்வத்தோடு சிகிச்சை எடுத்துக்கொள்ள விரும்பும் நகரம். இங்கிருக்கும் மருத்துவமனைகளில் உலகத்தரம் வாய்ந்த மருத்துவ வசதிகள், அனுபவம் வாய்ந்த மருத்துவர்கள் இருப்பதும்தான் அதற்குக் காரணம். இப்படிச் சொன்னதும், பலருக்கும் தனியார் மருத்துவமனைகள்தாம் நினைவில் வந்து போகும். உண்மை அதுவல்ல. தனியார் மருத்துவமனைகளைவிட, பல மருத்துவச் சாதனைகளைப் புரிந்துகொண்டிருக்கின்றன இங்கே இயங்கிவரும் அரசு மருத்துவமனைகள்.

ஆசியாவிலேயே மிகப்பெரியது... ராஜீவ் காந்தி அரசு மருத்துவமனை. தெற்காசியாவிலேயே குழந்தைகளுக்கான பல சிறப்புத் தன்மைகளைக் கொண்டது... எழும்பூர் குழந்தைகள் நல மருத்துவமனை மற்றும் ஆராய்ச்சி நிலையம். ஆசியாவிலேயே மிகப்பழைமையானது... ஸ்டான்லி மருத்துவமனை. அந்த வரிசையில் உலகின் இரண்டாவது கண் மருத்துவமனை, தெற்காசியாவின் முதல் கண் மருத்துவமனை... இந்த வருடம் 200-வது பிறந்தநாளைக் கொண்டாடிக்கொண்டிருக்கும் எழும்பூர் அரசு கண் மருத்துவமனை.


1809-ம் ஆண்டு லண்டனில் தொடங்கப்பட்ட `மார்ஃபீல்டு’தான் உலகின் முதல் கண் மருத்துவமனை. அதற்கடுத்து, 1819-ம் ஆண்டு ஜூலை மாதம், டாக்டர் ராபர்ட் ரிச்சர்ட்சன்னால் தொடங்கப்பட்டது `மெட்ராஸ் கண் மருத்துவமனை'. முதலில் ராயப்பேட்டையில் தொடங்கப்பட்டு, இடப்பற்றாக்குறையின் காரணமாக 1844-ம் ஆண்டு சென்னை எழும்பூருக்கு மாற்றப்பட்டது.




1888-ம் ஆண்டு `சென்னை அரசு கண் மருத்துவமனை'யாக மாற்றம் பெற்றது. இப்போது எதிரெதிரே இரண்டு பிரமாண்ட கட்டடங்களுடன் மிகச்சிறப்பாகச் செயல்பட்டுவருகிறது. பழைய கட்டடத்தில் அறுவை சிகிச்சைக்கு முந்தைய நிலையில் வழங்கப்படும் சிகிச்சைகளும், புதிய கட்டடத்தில் அறுவை சிகிச்சைக்குப் பிறகான சிகிச்சைகளும் வழங்கப்படுகின்றன. ஒரு நாளைக்கு உள்புற மற்றும் வெளிப்புற நோயாளிகளாக 1,000 முதல் 1,200 பேர் சிகிச்சைக்காக வருகிறார்கள். 478 படுக்கை வசதிகள், 47 மருத்துவ நிபுணர்களுடன் மிகச் சிறப்பாகச் செயல்பட்டுவருகிறது இந்த மருத்துவமனை. மேலும் இங்கேயிருக்கும் வசதிகள், அளிக்கப்படும் சிகிச்சைகள் குறித்து விரிவாகப் பார்ப்போம்.


பார்வைக்குறைபாடு, விழித்திரைப் பாதிப்பு, மாறுகண் பாதிப்பு, கண்புரை, கண்களில் ஏற்படக்கூடிய கட்டிகளைச் சரிசெய்தல், கண் நரம்புக் கோளாறுகள்... எனக் கண் தொடர்பான அனைத்துப் பிரச்னைகளுக்கும் தனித்தனியாக சிகிச்சையளிக்கப்படுகின்றன. சிகிச்சைக்காக வரும் ஒருவர் முதலில் ஓ.பி சீட்டு பெற்றுக்கொள்ள வேண்டும். அடுத்ததாக அவருக்குப் பார்வையைச் சரிபார்க்கும் சோதனை (Vision checking) நடைபெறும். இதற்கு `கிளாகோமா யூனிட் ' (Glaucoma Unit) என்று பெயர். இங்கே பார்வைத்திறன், கண் அழுத்தம், நரம்புப் பாதிப்பு போன்றவை பரிசோதிக்கப்படுகின்றன. தினமும் காலை 7:30 மணி முதல் மதியம் 1:30 மணிவரை இந்தப் பிரிவு செயல்படுகிறது. முதுகலை பயிலும் மாணவர்கள் இந்தச் சோதனைகளைச் செய்கிறார்கள். அதை சீனியர் மருத்துவர் சரிபார்க்கிறார். 24 மணி நேரமும் செயல்படும் (Casuality) அவசரப் பிரிவும் இருக்கிறது. ஒரு மூத்த கண் மருத்துவர், ஒரு மயக்கவியல் நிபுணர், 20 முதுகலை மாணவர்கள் இங்கே இருக்கிறார்கள்.
 

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