Interesting Facts Every Day !!

vijigermany

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#1
[h=1]Why Old Newspaper and Book Pages Turn Yellow[/h]
It is generally thought that paper was invented around 100 BC in China. Originally made from wet hemp that was, then, beaten to a pulp, tree bark, bamboo, and other plant fibers were eventually used. Paper soon spread across Asia, first only being used for official and important documents, but as the process became more efficient and cheaper, it became far more common.

Paper first arrived in Europe likely around the 11th century. Historians believe the oldest known paper document from the “Christian West” is the Missal of Silos from Spain, which is essentially a book containing texts to be read during Mass. This paper was made out of a form of linen. While paper, books, and printing would evolve throughout the next eight hundred years, with the Gutenberg printing press coming in the mid-15th century, paper was normally made out of linen, rags, cotton, or other plant fibers. It wouldn’t be until the mid-19th century when paper was made out of wood fiber.


So what changed? In 1844, two individuals invented the wood paper-making process. On one end of the Atlantic Ocean was Canadian inventor Charles Fenerty. Growing up, his family owned a series of lumber mills in Nova Scotia. Knowing the durability, cheapness, and availability of wood, he realized it could be a good substitute for the much more expensive cotton used in paper. He experimented with wood pulp and on October 26, 1844, he sent his wood pulp paper to Halifax’s top newspaper, The Acadian Recorder, with a note touting the durability and cost-effective spruce wood paper. Within weeks, the Recorder used Fenerty’s wood pulp paper.

At the same time, German binder and weaver Friedrich Gottlob Keller was working on a wood-cutting machine when he discovered the same thing as Fenerty – that wood pulp could act as a cheaper paper than cotton. He produced a sample and, in 1845, received a German patent for it. In fact, some historians credit Keller for the invention more than Fenerty simply due to the fact that he received a patent and the Canadian did not.
Within thirty years, wood pulp paper was all the rage on both sides of the pond. While wood pulp paper was cheaper and just as durable as cotton or other linen papers, there were drawbacks. Most significantly, wood pulp paper is much more prone to being effected by oxygen and sunlight.

Wood is primarily made up of two polymer substances – cellulose and lignin. Cellulose is the most abundant organic material in nature. It is also technically colorless and reflects light extremely well rather than absorbs it (which makes it opaque); therefore humans see cellulose as white. However, cellulose is also somewhat susceptible to oxidation, although not nearly as much as lignin. Oxidation causes a loss of electron(s) and weakens the material. In the case of cellulose, this can result in some light being absorbed, making the material (in this case, wood pulp) appear duller and less white (some describe it as “warmer”), but this isn’t what causes the bulk of the yellowing in aged paper.


Lignin is the other prominent substance found in paper, newspaper in particular. Lignin is a compound found in wood that actually makes the wood stronger and harder. In fact, according to Dr. Hou-Min Chang of N.C. State University in Raleigh, “Without lignin, a tree could only grow to about 6 ft. tall.” Essentially, lignin functions as something of a “glue,” more firmly binding the cellulose fibers, helping make the tree much stiffer and able to stand taller than they otherwise would, as well able to withstand external pressures like wind.
Lignin is a dark color naturally (think brown-paper bags or brown cardboard boxes, where much of the lignin is left in for added strength, while also resulting in the bags/boxes being cheaper due to less processing needed in their creation). Lignin is also highly susceptible to oxidation. Exposure to oxygen (especially when combined with sunlight) alters the molecular structure of lignin, causing a change in how the compound absorbs and reflects light, resulting in the substance containing oxidized lignin turning a yellow-brown color in the human visual spectrum.


Since the paper used in newspapers tends to be made with a less intensive and more cost-efficient process (since a lot of the wood pulp paper is needed), there tends to be significantly more lignin in newspapers than in, say, paper made for books, where a bleaching process is used to remove much of the lignin. The net result is that, as newspapers get older and are exposed to more oxygen, they turn a yellowish-brown color relatively quickly.

As for books, since the paper used tends to be higher grade (among other things, meaning more lignin is removed along with a much more intensive bleaching process), the discolorization doesn’t happen as quickly. However, the chemicals used in the bleaching process to make white paper can result in the cellulose being more susceptible to oxidation than it would otherwise be, contributing slightly to the discolorization of the pages in the long run.
Today, to combat this, many important documents are now written on acid-free paper with a limited amount of lignin, to prevent it from deteriorating as quickly.
As for old historic documents – or my parent’s old newspapers – there may not be a way to reverse the damage already done, but one can prevent further damage. It is important to store the documents or newspaper in a cool, dry, dark place, just like how museums store historic documents in a temperature-controlled room with low-lighting. Additionally, do not store them in an attic or basement; those places can get humid and can have significant temperature swings. If one would like to display the newspaper or document out in the open, put it behind UV protected glass to deflect harmful rays. Most importantly, limit the handling of said document or newspaper – nothing destroys a valuable piece of paper like frequent handling.
It is generally thought that paper was invented around 100 BC in China. Originally made from wet hemp that was, then, beaten to a pulp, tree bark, bamboo, and other plant fibers were eventually used. Paper soon spread across Asia, first only being used for official and important documents, but as the process became more efficient and cheaper, it became far more common.

Paper first arrived in Europe likely around the 11th century. Historians believe the oldest known paper document from the “Christian West” is the Missal of Silos from Spain, which is essentially a book containing texts to be read during Mass. This paper was made out of a form of linen. While paper, books, and printing would evolve throughout the next eight hundred years, with the Gutenberg printing press coming in the mid-15th century, paper was normally made out of linen, rags, cotton, or other plant fibers. It wouldn’t be until the mid-19th century when paper was made out of wood fiber.
So what changed? In 1844, two individuals invented the wood paper-making process. On one end of the Atlantic Ocean was Canadian inventor Charles Fenerty. Growing up, his family owned a series of lumber mills in Nova Scotia. Knowing the durability, cheapness, and availability of wood, he realized it could be a good substitute for the much more expensive cotton used in paper. He experimented with wood pulp and on October 26, 1844, he sent his wood pulp paper to Halifax’s top newspaper, The Acadian Recorder, with a note touting the durability and cost-effective spruce wood paper. Within weeks, the Recorder used Fenerty’s wood pulp paper.

At the same time, German binder and weaver Friedrich Gottlob Keller was working on a wood-cutting machine when he discovered the same thing as Fenerty – that wood pulp could act as a cheaper paper than cotton. He produced a sample and, in 1845, received a German patent for it. In fact, some historians credit Keller for the invention more than Fenerty simply due to the fact that he received a patent and the Canadian did not.


Within thirty years, wood pulp paper was all the rage on both sides of the pond. While wood pulp paper was cheaper and just as durable as cotton or other linen papers, there were drawbacks. Most significantly, wood pulp paper is much more prone to being effected by oxygen and sunlight.

Wood is primarily made up of two polymer substances – cellulose and lignin. Cellulose is the most abundant organic material in nature. It is also technically colorless and reflects light extremely well rather than absorbs it (which makes it opaque); therefore humans see cellulose as white. However, cellulose is also somewhat susceptible to oxidation, although not nearly as much as lignin. Oxidation causes a loss of electron(s) and weakens the material. In the case of cellulose, this can result in some light being absorbed, making the material (in this case, wood pulp) appear duller and less white (some describe it as “warmer”), but this isn’t what causes the bulk of the yellowing in aged paper.
Lignin is the other prominent substance found in paper, newspaper in particular. Lignin is a compound found in wood that actually makes the wood stronger and harder. In fact, according to Dr. Hou-Min Chang of N.C. State University in Raleigh, “Without lignin, a tree could only grow to about 6 ft. tall.” Essentially, lignin functions as something of a “glue,” more firmly binding the cellulose fibers, helping make the tree much stiffer and able to stand taller than they otherwise would, as well able to withstand external pressures like wind.
Lignin is a dark color naturally (think brown-paper bags or brown cardboard boxes, where much of the lignin is left in for added strength, while also resulting in the bags/boxes being cheaper due to less processing needed in their creation). Lignin is also highly susceptible to oxidation. Exposure to oxygen (especially when combined with sunlight) alters the molecular structure of lignin, causing a change in how the compound absorbs and reflects light, resulting in the substance containing oxidized lignin turning a yellow-brown color in the human visual spectrum.

Since the paper used in newspapers tends to be made with a less intensive and more cost-efficient process (since a lot of the wood pulp paper is needed), there tends to be significantly more lignin in newspapers than in, say, paper made for books, where a bleaching process is used to remove much of the lignin. The net result is that, as newspapers get older and are exposed to more oxygen, they turn a yellowish-brown color relatively quickly.
As for books, since the paper used tends to be higher grade (among other things, meaning more lignin is removed along with a much more intensive bleaching process), the discolorization doesn’t happen as quickly. However, the chemicals used in the bleaching process to make white paper can result in the cellulose being more susceptible to oxidation than it would otherwise be, contributing slightly to the discolorization of the pages in the long run.

Today, to combat this, many important documents are now written on acid-free paper with a limited amount of lignin, to prevent it from deteriorating as quickly.

As for old historic documents – or my parent’s old newspapers – there may not be a way to reverse the damage already done, but one can prevent further damage. It is important to store the documents or newspaper in a cool, dry, dark place, just like how museums store historic documents in a temperature-controlled room with low-lighting. Additionally, do not store them in an attic or basement; those places can get humid and can have significant temperature swings. If one would like to display the newspaper or document out in the open, put it behind UV protected glass to deflect harmful rays. Most importantly, limit the handling of said document or newspaper – nothing destroys a valuable piece of paper like frequent handling.
 

vijigermany

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#2
Why are the Emmy Awards Called Emmys?


This one’s got a more succinct and well documented answer than the Oscar question. Pioneering TV engineer (and third American Academy of Television Arts President) Harry Lubcke suggested that the name “Immy” be used, named after the “image orthicon tube” that was nicknamed the “Immy”. The Academy members liked it, but felt is should be more feminine, to match the statuette, so switched it to the name “Emmy”.

Runner up for the name of the award was “Ike”, suggested by Academy founder Syd Cassyd. In this case, he was naming it after the Iconoscope tube, which incidentally got its name from the Greek εἰκών (“image”). So even had it been named “Ike”, it would have still ultimately been named after “image”. “Ike” was rejected as Academy members thought that people would think the name was coined after Dwight D. Eisenhower.

The statuette itself, of a winged woman holding an atom, was designed in 1948 by TV engineer and editor Louis McManus. His wife, Dorothy, served as the model for the statuette. Unlike the Academy Award statuette, where only one design was considered, this design was the 48th looked at by the Academy, with the previous 47 being rejected. The idea behind the design is that the winged woman represents the muse of art and the atom she’s holding represents “the science of television”.

For his design, Louis McManus was awarded a “Special Award” Emmy in the first year the Emmys were given out (1948). Funny enough, his Emmy was not the statuette he designed, but rather a plaque.
 

vijigermany

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#5
FACTS !!

1.Our oldest radio broadcasts of the 1930s have already traveled past 100,000 stars


2. It takes 8 minutes 17 seconds for light to travel from the Sun’s surface to the Earth.


3. October 12th, 1999 was declared “The Day of Six Billion” based on United Nations projections.


4. 10 percent of all human beings ever born are alive at this very moment.


5. The Earth spins at 1,000 mph but it travels through space at an incredible 67,000 mph.


6. Every year over one million earthquakes shake the Earth.


7. When Krakatoa erupted in 1883, its force was so great it could be heard 4,800 kilometers away in Australia.


8. The largest ever hailstone weighed over 1kg and fell in Bangladesh in 1986.


9. Every second around 100 lightning bolts strike the Earth.


10. Every year lightning kills 1000 people.
 

vijigermany

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#6
Why is it called a hamburger although it contains no ham?


During a trip to Asia in the early 1800s, a German merchant – it is said – noticed that the nomadic Tartars softened their meat by keeping it under their saddles.

The motion of the horse pounded the meat to bits.

The Tartars would then scrape it together and season it for eating.

The idea of pounded beef found its way back to the merchant’s home town of Hamburg where cooks broiled the meat and referred to it as it as Hamburg meat.


German immigrants introduced the recipe to the US.

The term “hamburger” is believed to have appeared in 1834 on the menu from Delmonico’s restaurant in New York but there is no surviving recipe for the meal. The first mention in print of “Hamburg steak” was made in 1884 in the Boston Evening Journal.



The honor of producing the first proper hamburger goes to Charlie Nagreen of Seymour, Wisconsin, USA. In 1885 Nagreen introduced the American hamburger at the Outgamie County Fair in Seymour. (Seymour is recognized as the hamburger capital of the world.)


 

vijigermany

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#7
Why is a hotdog called a hotdog?



In 1987, Frankfurt, Germany celebrated the 500th birthday of the frankfurter, the hot dog sausage.

Although, the people of Vienna (Wien), Austria will point out that their wiener sausages are proof of origin for the hot dog. (By the way, ham, being pork meat, is found in hotdogs.)

A butcher from Frankfurt who owned a dachshund named the long frankfurter sausage a “dachshund sausage,” the dachshund being a slim dog with a long body. (“Dachshund” is German for “badger dog.” They were originally bred for hunting badgers.) German immigrants introduced the dachshund sausage (and Hamburg meat) to the United States. In 1871, German butcher Charles Feltman opened the first “hotdog” stand in Coney Island, selling 3,684 dachshund sausages, most wrapped in a milk bread roll, during his first year in business.

In the meantime, frankfurters – and wieners – were sold as hot food by sausage sellers. In 1901, New York Times cartoonist T.A. Dargan noticed that one sausage seller used bread buns to handle the hot sausages after he burnt his fingers and decided to illustrate the incident. He wasn’t sure of the spelling of dachshund and simply called it “hot dog.”





 

vijigermany

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#8
[h=1]who invented peanut butter?[/h]


Bless him, the man who invented peanut butter. No-one knows his (or her) name simply because although the making of peanut butter can be traced back to almost 1000 BC there is no mention of the name of who made it first.

Claims to the modern recipe are easier to follow: New Yorker Rose Davis made peanut butter in 1840, Canadian Marcellus Edson gained a patent for it in 1884, George A. Bayle made peanut butter in 1890, John Harvey Kellogg – he of the famous Kelloggs cereals – received a patent for suchlike product in 1897, and Ambrose Straub from St Louis, Missouri patented a peanut butter making machine in the 1903, the same year George Washington Carver introduced his peanut butter recipe. The next year, C H Sumner introduced peanut butter commercially at the Universal Exposition in St Louis. But it would be Joseph L. Rosenfield who would take it big time from 1922 onward.


Rosenfield licensed his churning process for smooth peanut butter to the Peter Pan brand in 1928 but in 1932 introduced his own Skippy brand.
Today, peanut butter is a billion dollar industry.

Thanks to that guy or girl whose name we don’t know.



 

vijigermany

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#9
[h=1]Eskimos use refrigerators to keep food from freezing[/h]



z
Freez
ing is one of the easiest, most convenient, and least time-consuming methods of preserving foods. Freezing does not sterilize foods; the extreme cold simply retards the growth of microorganisms and slows down chemical changes that affect quality or cause food to spoil.



Eskimos also use refrigerators to keep food from freezing. But why would they if they live in below-zero temperatures? Well, will you just leave meat or food on the table or somewhere if you have a refrigerator in the house? When out on the ice-covered plains, where you won’t find refrigerators, Eskimos put food in bags made of seal skins to shield it from exposure.



 

vijigermany

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#10
Why Black Cats Are Considered Bad Luck



Black Cats weren’t always the butt of superstitions, feared, or even considered bad luck. In fact, in early Egyptian times, dating back as far as 3000 BC, cats (including black ones) were the rock stars of the animal world, held in high esteem; to kill one was considered a capital crime. It wasn’t until the middle-ages in Europe that the black cat’s rock star status started to go downhill as they began to be associated with so-called witches. The hysteria of witches practicing black magic had just hit Europe and alley cats were often cared for and fed by the poor lonely old ladies (funny how some things never change) later accused of witchery.

Their cat companions, some of which were black ones, were deemed guilty of witchery by association. This belief was taken up a notch when a folklore involving a father and son in Lincolnshire in the 1560’s started making the rounds. The pair were said to have been traveling one moonless night when a black cat crossed their path and dove into a crawl space. Naturally, they did what any guys would do, they threw rocks at the furry feline until the helpless injured creature scurried out into a woman’s house, who at the time was suspected of being a witch. The next day, the father and son came across the same woman and noticed she was limping and bruised and believed that to be more than just a coincidence. From that day on in Lincolnshire, it was thought that witches could turn into black cats at night.

The belief of witches transforming themselves into black cats in order to prowl streets unobserved became a central belief in America during the Salem witch hunts. Even today the association of black cats and witches holds strong during Halloween celebrations, despite the holiday’s religious beginnings. Thus, an animal once looked on with approbation became a symbol of evil omens in some parts of the World.

However, in some cultures, the black cat is still revered and a symbol of good luck even today. The Scottish believe that a strange black cat’s arrival to the home signifies prosperity, while Pirates of the 19th century believed if a black cat walks towards you, it’s a sign of bad luck, but it’s good luck if it walks away from you. In the English Midlands, a black cat as a wedding present is thought to bring good luck to the bride!
 

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