Kidnes stone


Lord of Penmai
Jul 5, 2011
Kidnes stone
A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney out of substances in the urine.

A stone may stay in the kidney or break loose and travel down the urinary tract. A small stone may pass all the way out of the body without causing too much pain.

A larger stone may get stuck in a ureter, the bladder, or the urethra. A problem stone can block the flow of urine and cause great pain.

Kidney stones may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a pearl. Some stones are even as big as golf balls. Stones may be smooth or jagged. They are usually yellow or brown.

The kidneys filter the blood and remove excess water and waste chemicals to produce urine.
Urine travels from each kidney down a tube called the ureter into the bladder, then out of the body
via the urethra when the bladder is full.
Many waste chemicals are dissolved in the urine.
The chemicals sometimes form tiny crystals in the urine which clump together to form a small stone.

Causes of kidney stones

Men are more likely to get kidney stones than women.
About half of people who get kidney stones go on to get more within five years.
In most people, there is no obvious reason for developing kidney stones, although you may be more likely to get kidney stones if you:

have a family history of kidney stones

are aged between 20 and 50

are taking certain medicines – for example, indinavir (in the treatment of HIV infection) and certain diuretics
are taking too many vitamin C or calcium/vitamin D supplements, or antacids
have an abnormally shaped kidney
eat a lot of protein
are dehydrated because you don't drink enough fluids

The exact cause of kidney stones cannot always be found, although they are usually formed following a build-up of a substance in the body, such as:

calcium: a mineral that helps build strong teeth and bones
ammonia: a colourless gas with a strong smell
uric acid: a waste product that is produced when the body breaks down food to use as energy
cystine: an amino acid that helps build protein

Certain medical conditions, such as cancer or kidney disease, can also increase your risk of developing kidney stones. This is usually due to the treatment for these conditions.

Recurrent kidney stones

You are at a greater risk of developing recurrent (returning) kidney stones if:

you eat a high-protein, low-fibre diet
you are inactive or bed-bound
kidney stones run in your family
you have had several kidney or urinary infections
you have had a kidney stone previously, particularly if this was before you were 25 years of age
only one of your kidneys works
you have had an intestinal bypass (surgery on your digestive system), or a disease of the small intestine, such as Crohn's disease (inflammation of the gut)

There is also evidence that certain types of medication may also increase your risk of developing recurrent kidney stones. For example:

calcium and vitamin D supplements

Kidney stones can develop as a result of a number of different factors. The causes of the four main types of kidney stone are outlined below.

Calcium stones
Calcium stones are the most common type of kidney stone. They are caused when there is too much calcium in the urine. High amounts of calcium could be due to factors such as:

high levels of vitamin D
an overactive parathyroid gland (your parathyroid glands help to regulate the amount of calcium in your body and release hormones)
kidney disease
sarcoidosis (a condition that causes inflammation of the lymph nodes and other organs)
some cancers

Calcium stones are usually either large and smooth, or spiky and rough.

Struvite stones
Struvite stones are often caused by infections, and they most commonly occur after a urinary tract infection (UTI) that has lasted a long time.
Struvite stones are more common in women than in men.

Uric acid stones
Uric acid stones often form when there is a high amount of acid in your urine. Uric acid stones may be caused by:

eating a high protein diet that includes lots of meat
a condition that prevents the body breaking down chemicals, such as gout
an inherited condition that causes higher levels of acid in the body
chemotherapy (a treatment for cancer)

Cystine stones
Cystine stones are the rarest form of kidney stone. They are caused by an inherited condition called cystinuria, which affects the amount of acid that is passed in your urine.

The main symptom is severe pain that starts suddenly and may go away suddenly:

Pain may be felt in the belly area or side of the back
Pain may move to groin area (groin pain) or testicles (testicle pain)

Other symptoms can include:

Abnormal urine color
Blood in the urine

Exams and Tests »

Pain can be severe enough to need narcotic pain relievers. The belly area (abdomen) or back might feel tender to the touch.

Tests for kidney stones include:

Analysis of the stone to show what type of stone it is
Uric acid level
Urinalysis to see crystals and red blood cells in urine

Stones or a blockage of the ureter can be seen on:

Abdominal CT scan
Abdominal/kidney MRI
Abdominal x-rays
Intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
Kidney ultrasound
Retrograde pyelogram

Tests may show high levels of calcium, oxylate, or uric acid in the urine or blood.


The goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms and prevent further symptoms. (Kidney stones that are small enough usually pass on their own.) Treatment varies depending on the type of stone and how severe the symptoms are. People with severe symptoms might need to be hospitalized.

When the stone passes, the urine should be strained and the stone saved and tested to determine the type.

Drink at least 6 - 8 glasses of water per day to produce a large amount of urine. Some people might need to get fluids through a vein (intravenous).

Pain relievers can help control the pain of passing the stones (renal colic). For severe pain, you may need to take narcotic pain killers or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)

Depending on the type of stone, your doctor may prescribe medicine to decrease stone formation or help break down and remove the material that is causing the stone.

Surgery is usually needed if:

The stone is too large to pass on its own
The stone is growing
The stone is blocking urine flow and cuasing an infection or kidney damage#

xtracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy is used to remove stones slightly smaller than a half an inch that are located near the kidney.

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is used for large stones in or near the kidney, or when the kidneys or surrounding areas are incorrectly formed.

Ureteroscopy may be used for stones in the lower urinary tract.

Standard open surgery (nephrolithotomy) may be needed if other methods do not work or are not possible.

Possible Complications

Decrease or loss of function in the affected kidney
Kidney damage, scarring
Obstruction of the ureter (acute unilateral obstructive uropathy)
Recurrence of stones
Urinary tract infection

Because different kidney stone types may require specific dietary changes, patients should work with their doctors to develop an individualized plan. Nutritional considerations are very important in preventing recurrences, and patients should comply with the proper diet.



Commander's of Penmai
Apr 4, 2011
Thanks 4 sharing....vijii....

:clap2: its 4 u.....

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