Radiation

YOKI

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#1
Radiation is naturally present in our environment, as it has been since before the birth of this planet. In addition, radiation can be produced artificially, as in medical x-rays and microwaves for cooking.
The various forms of radiation can be either benefical or harmful, depending on their use and control. For that reason, regulation of certain radioactive sources is necessary to ensure that people and the environment are protected from unnecessary or excessive exposures.



[h=1]Sources of Radiation[/h] Since the beginning of time, all living creatures have been, and are still being, exposed to radiation. Nonetheless, most people are not aware of all the natural and man-made sources of radiation in our environment.
A chart of the public's exposure to ionizing radiation (displayed below) shows that people generally receive a total annual dose of about 620 millirem. Of this total, natural sources of radiation account for about 50 percent, while man-made sources account for the remaining 50 percent.


ionizing-radiation.jpg
 

YOKI

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#2
[h=1]Natural Background Sources[/h] Natural background radiation comes from the following three sources:


[h=3]Cosmic Radiation[/h] The sun and stars send a constant stream of cosmic radiation to Earth, much like a steady drizzle of rain. Differences in elevation, atmospheric conditions, and the Earth's magnetic field can change the amount (or dose ) of cosmic radiation that we receive.
[h=3]Terrestrial Radiation[/h] The Earth itself is a source of terrestrial radiation . Radioactive materials (including uranium , thorium, and radium ) exist naturally in soil and rock. Essentially all air contains radon , which is responsible for most of the dose that Americans receive each year from natural background sources. In addition, water contains small amounts of dissolved uranium and thorium, and all organic matter (both plant and animal) contains radioactive carbon and potassium. Some of these materials are ingested with food and water, while others (such as radon) are inhaled. The dose from terrestrial sources varies in different parts of the world, but locations with higher soil concentrations of uranium and thorium generally have higher doses.
[h=3]Internal Radiation[/h] All people have internal radiation, mainly from radioactive potassium-40 and carbon-14 inside their bodies from birth and, therefore, are sources of exposure to others. The variation in dose from one person to another is not as great as that associated with cosmic and terrestrial sources.
 

YOKI

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#3
[h=1]Man-Made Sources[/h] Although all living things are exposed to natural background radiation, exposure to man-made radiation sources differs for the following groups:

[h=3]Members of the Public[/h] In general, the following man-made sources expose the public to radiation (the significant radioactive isotopes are indicated in parentheses):

  • Medical Sources (by far, the most significant man-made source)
    • Diagnostic x-rays
    • Nuclear medicine procedures (iodine-131, cesium-137, and others)
  • Consumer Products
    • Building and road construction materials
    • Combustible fuels, including gas and coal
    • X-ray security systems
    • Televisions
    • Fluorescent lamp starters
    • Smoke detectors (americium)
    • Luminous watches (tritium)
    • Lantern mantles (thorium)
    • Tobacco (polonium-210)
    • Ophthalmic glass used in eyeglasses
    • Some ceramics
To a lesser degree, the public is also exposed to radiation from the nuclear fuel cycle, from uranium mining and milling to disposal of used (spent) fuel. In addition, the public receives some minimal exposure from the transportation of radioactive materials and fallout from nuclear weapons testing and reactor accidents (such as Chernobyl). For that reason, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires its licensees to limit the maximum radiation exposure to individual members of the public to 100 mrem (1 mSv) per year. The related NRC regulations and radiation exposure limits are contained in Title 10, Part 20, of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 20).
 

YOKI

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#4
[h=3]Occupationally Exposed Individuals[/h] In general, occupationally exposed individuals work in the following areas:

Such individuals are exposed to varying amounts of radiation, depending on their specific jobs and the sources with which they work (including cobalt-60, cesium-137, americium-241, and other isotopes). For that reason, the NRC requires its licensees to limit occupational exposure to adults working with radioactive material to 5,000 mrem (50 mSv) per year. The related NRC regulations and radiation exposure limits are contained in 10 CFR Part 20 . Toward that end, employers carefully monitor the exposure of these individuals using instruments called dosimeters .
 

YOKI

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#5
[h=1][FONT=Arial, Helvetica][SIZE=+2]Units of Measurement[/SIZE][/FONT][/h][SIZE=+1]The unit used to measure radiation dosage is the rem, which stands for roentgen equivalent in man. It represents the amount of radiation needed to produce a particular amount of damage to living tissue. The total dose of rems determines how much harm a person suffers.

[/SIZE][h=1][FONT=Arial, Helvetica][SIZE=+2]Effects of Radiation Exposure on Human Health[/SIZE][/FONT][/h][SIZE=+1]Although a dose of just 25 rems causes some detectable changes in blood, doses to near 100 rems usually have no immediate harmful effects. Doses above 100 rems cause the first signs of radiation sickness including:[/SIZE]

  • [SIZE=+1]nausea[/SIZE]
  • [SIZE=+1]vomiting[/SIZE]
  • [SIZE=+1]headache[/SIZE]
  • [SIZE=+1]some loss of white blood cells[/SIZE]
 

YOKI

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#6
[SIZE=+1]Doses of 300 rems or more cause temporary hair loss, but also more significant internal harm, including damage to nerve cells and the cells that line the digestive tract. Severe loss of white blood cells, which are the body's main defense against infection, makes radiation victims highly vulnerable to disease. Radiation also reduces production of blood platelets, which aid blood clotting, so victims of radiation sickness are also vulnerable to hemorrhaging. Half of all people exposed to 450 rems die, and doses of 800 rems or more are always fatal. Besides the symptoms mentioned above, these people also suffer from fever and diarrhea. As of yet, there is no effective treatment--so death occurs within two to fourteen days.[/SIZE]
[SIZE=+1]In time, for survivors, diseases such as leukemia (cancer of the blood), lung cancer, thyroid cancer, breast cancer, and cancers of other organs can appear due to the radiation received[/SIZE]
 

YOKI

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#7
RADIOTHERAPHY



  1. Isotopes: Elements with same Atomic number (Number of protons same, Number of Neutrons Vary)
  2. Most used materials for external irradiation- Cobalt 60 , Cesium 131 ( Gamma rays)
  3. Machine used for electron therapy- Betatron , Material used is Tungsten
  4. Substances used as permanent implant for radiation-
    • Gold Grains
    • Radon Seeds
  5. For permanent insertion into cavities
    • Colloidal Gold
    • Vitrium
    • Phosphorus 52
  6. Radio active phosphorus is useful in
Diagnosis of

  • Eye Cancers
  • Oesophageal Cancer
Treatment of –

  • Polycythemia Vera
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Secondaries in Bone
  • Ca Prostate after priming with androgen.
  • Malignant ascites
Effect of Radiation on Tissues

<> [TABLE]

[TR]
[TD="width: 50%"]Most Commonly affected[/TD]
[TD="width: 50%"]Skin[/TD]
[/TR]
[TR]
[TD="width: 50%"]Most Senstive Mucosa[/TD]
[TD="width: 50%"]Intestinal Mucosa[/TD]
[/TR]
[TR]
[TD="width: 50%"]Most Sensitive CNS part[/TD]
[TD="width: 50%"]Mid Brain, Medulla, Spinal Cord[/TD]
[/TR]
[TR]
[TD="width: 50%"]Most sensitive cell in CNS[/TD]
[TD="width: 50%"]Neurone[/TD]
[/TR]
[TR]
[TD="width: 50%"]Most Sensitive blood cells[/TD]
[TD="width: 50%"]Lymphocytes[/TD]
[/TR]
[TR]
[TD="width: 50%"]Most resistant Blood cells[/TD]
[TD="width: 50%"]Platelets[/TD]
[/TR]
[TR]
[TD="width: 50%"]Most sensitive organ in abdomen[/TD]
[TD="width: 50%"]Kidney[/TD]
[/TR]
[/TABLE]
 

YOKI

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#8
Radio Isotope Scans



[TABLE]

[TR]
[TD]Scan [/TD]
[TD]Isotope Used[/TD]
[/TR]
[TR]
[TD]Liver and Biliary function[/TD]
[TD]Tc99, Tc glycoheptonate[/TD]
[/TR]
[TR]
[TD]Spleen, Marrow[/TD]
[TD]Tc 99[/TD]
[/TR]
[TR]
[TD]Lung[/TD]
[TD]Tc 99 macroaggregates[/TD]
[/TR]
[TR]
[TD]Lung ventilation[/TD]
[TD]Xenon gas[/TD]
[/TR]
[TR]
[TD]Kidney[/TD]
[TD]Tc 99, Tc Labelled derivatives[/TD]
[/TR]
[TR]
[TD]Brain, bone[/TD]
[TD]Tc pertechnetate[/TD]
[/TR]
[TR]
[TD]Myocardial function[/TD]
[TD]Tc albumin[/TD]
[/TR]
[TR]
[TD]Myocardial infarction[/TD]
[TD]Tc pyrophosphate[/TD]
[/TR]
[TR]
[TD]Myocardial perfusion[/TD]
[TD]Thalluim Chloride[/TD]
[/TR]
[TR]
[TD]Tumor or abscess[/TD]
[TD]Gallium citrate[/TD]
[/TR]
[TR]
[TD]Pancreas scan[/TD]
[TD]Selenomethiomine, Se 75[/TD]
[/TR]
[TR]
[TD]Thyroid malignancy[/TD]
[TD]Selenium[/TD]
[/TR]
[TR]
[TD]Thyroid function[/TD]
[TD]Iodine 131[/TD]
[/TR]
[/TABLE]
 

YOKI

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#9
புற்று நோய் சிகிச்சை நிபுணர் சுப்ரமணியன்: புற்று நோயை பொறுத்தவரை அறுவை சிகிச்சை, கதிர் வீச்சு, கீமோதெரபி என மூன்று வகையான சிகிச்சை முறைகள் உள்ளன. இதில், கதிர்வீச்சு சிகிச்சை மிகவும் பயன் அளிக்கக்கூடியது.இந்த கதிர்வீச்சு சிகிச்சைகள் தினமும், 15 முதல் 30 நிமிடங்களுக்கு ஆறு வாரங்கள் வரை அளிக்கப்படும். ஆனால், தற்போது வந்திருக்கும், "ரேபிட் ஆர்க்' சிகிச்சையின் மூலம், முன்பை விட பல மடங்கு துல்லியமாகவும், வேகமாகவும் சிகிச்சை அளிக்க முடியும்

cancer.jpg
 

YOKI

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#10
இந்த சிகிச்சை,"லினாக்' இயந்திரம் மூலம் தரப்படுகிறது. புற்று நோயாளிக்கு, சி.டி., எம்.ஆர்.ஐ., ஸ்கேன் எடுத்த பின், நோயின் தன்மை, நிலை ஆகியவற்றை கண்டறிந்து, நோயாளிக்கு, "ரேப்பிட் ஆர்க்' சிகிச்சையைத் தொடங்குவோம்.நோயாளியை,"லினாக்' இயந்திரத்தின் கீழே படுக்க வைப்போம். பிரத்யேகமாக வடிவமைக்கப்பட்ட கருவிகள் மூலம் உடல் அசையாமல், பிடித்துக் கொள்ளப்படும். அந்த இயந்திரத்தில் உள்ள ஸ்கேன் கருவி, நோயாளியைப் படம் பிடிக்கும். அந்தப் படத்தைக் கொண்டு, புற்று நோயால் பாதிக்கப்பட்ட திசுக்கள் மட்டும் கண்டறியப்பட்டு, கதிர் வீச்சு மூலம் அழிக்கப்படும். முந்தைய சிகிச்சையில் ஒரே பக்கத்தில் இருந்து, கதிர் வீச்சு செலுத்தப்படும். அதனால், புற்று நோய் பாதிப்புள்ள திசுவுடன் சேர்ந்து நல்ல திசுவும் ஓரளவு பாதிக்கப்படும் வாய்ப்பு இருந்தது. ஆனால் இந்த, "ரேப்பிட் ஆர்க்' சிகிச்சை மூன்றே நிமிடங்களில் சிகிச்சை முடிந்துவிடும். இது தவிர, "ஸ்கேட்டரிங்' எனும் கதிர்வீச்சு சிதறலும், மிகக் குறைவான அளவிலேயே இருக்கும். இது போன்ற காரணங்களால், நல்ல திசுக்கள் சிறிதளவும் பாதிப்பிற்கு உள்ளாவது இல்லை.நோயின் தன்மையைப் பொறுத்து, சிகிச்சைக்கான காலம் குறையவும் வாய்ப்புண்டு. மிகக் குறுகிய நேரத்தில், துல்லிய மாக சிகிச்சை அளிக்கும் இந்த சிகிச்சையால், நோயாளிக்குப் பக்க விளைவுகள் இல்லை!
 

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